Presentation on theme: "The Effects of Climate Change on Biological Diversity"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Effects of Climate Change on Biological Diversity Good morning everyone. My name is Andrea Donaldson and I am from the Biodiversity Branch of the National Environment and Planning Agency. This morning I will be making a presentation on the Effects of Climate Change on Biological Diversity. In 2002, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a document entitled “Climate Change and Biological Diversity” IPCC Technical Paper V. This document arose from a formal request from the Subsidiary Body for Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity to prepare a technical paper on climate change on biodiversity. Most of the information provided in my presentation will be taken from this report.by Andrea Donaldson National Environment and Planning Agency
2 Biological Diversity/Biodiversity “the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems” (Convention on Biological Diversity)Biological Diversity or biodiversity as defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity is “the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems”.
3 Threats to Biodiversity Land use and land cover changesSoil, air and water pollutionDiversion of water to intensively managed ecosystems and urban systemsHabitat fragmentationSelective exploitation of speciesIntroduction of speciesThe assessment of the impact of climate change on biodiversity can be difficult, as these changes are slow and the effects of climate change interact with already existing stress factors impacting the environment. However, at the global level, human activities have caused and will continue to cause a loss in biodiversity. Threats to Biodiversity includes (slide)Climate Change
4 Projected Impact of Climate Change Earth’s mean surface temperature will warm to 1.4 to 5.80C by the end of the 21st century – land areas warming more than the ocean, high latitudes more than tropicsSea level will rise 0.09 to 0.88mPrecipitation will increase in high-latitude and equatorial areas and decrease in subtropics
5 Potential Impact of Climate Change on Biodiversity Changing thetiming in reproduction animals and plantsmigration pattern of animalslength of the growing seasonspecies distributionpopulation sizesIt is felt that the effect of climate change on biodiversity has already begun. The following are some changes to the flora and fauna due to climate change (slide).frequency of pest and disease outbreaks
6 Potential Impact cont’d Risk of extinctionincreases for many species already vulnerablespecies with limited climatic ranges, restricted habitat requirements and small populations are vulnerablelittle evidence that climate change slows species loss, there is however evidence that it may increase species loss.Another impact is the risk of extinction (slide)
7 Impact on Biodiversity in Small Island States Increases in the frequency of hurricanes or wind speed could negatively affect habitats.Mangroves, seagrass beds, other coastal ecosystems and associated biodiversity will be affected.Saltwater intrusion into freshwater habitatsPotential loss of coral reef associated species due to coral bleaching and reduced calcification rates.The impacts projected for small island states include(slide)Mangroves (bullet): The effects on coastal ecosystems will depend on erosion processes from the sea and depositional processes on land. Mangroves in low-island coastal regions with high sedimentation and low erosion may not be particularly vulnerable.Inundation and flooding: will lead to loss of some endemic bird species.Inundation and flooding of low-lying forested area
8 Past changes in the global climate resulted in major shifts in species ranges and reorganization of biological communities, landscapes, and biomes during the last 1.8 million years. This occurred when the landscape was not as fragmented as today, and with little or no pressure from human activities.We should note that (slide)At end of slide -Finally, the human component of the environment needs to be considered when dealing with the impacts of climate change on biodiversity.Today’s climate change along with other human pressures is stressing biodiversity beyond the levels imposed by the global climatic change in the recent evolutionary past.