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Chapter 2 People, Places, and Patterns Geography in International Studies.

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1 Chapter 2 People, Places, and Patterns Geography in International Studies

2 What is Geography? Geography is a core discipline of international studies Geo meaning “Earth” Graphy refers to “writing” Two main areas of study: – Physical Examines the environment – Human Arrangement of Activities of people

3 Development of Geography The classical Greeks and Chinese were the first to understand and study geography Arabs continued the study of geography With the Renaissance, Europe relearned Geography through encounters with the Arabs Modern geography is said to embody six elements: – Space: patterns of human activity across the Earth – Place & Region: focuses on characteristics of places – Physical: understand processes of the environment – Human: understand human influence on Earth – Environment: interrelationships between people and environment – Uses: past, present, and future

4 Components of Geography Three main components of a geographical way of thinking: – Space Location Spatial interaction Spatial organization – Region Formal Functional – Environment

5 Space Location: answers the question “where?” – Nominal: Oxford, OH – Relative: Ohio is West of New York – Absolute: Oxford, OH is at 39 o 30’N Lat, 84 o 45’W Long Spatial Interaction: why and how…. – People move – Resources move – Ideas move Spatial Organization: reveals how people have delineated various territories

6 [Figure 2.1. Hong Kong. The harbor is the reason for Hong Kong. Photo S. Toops]

7 Region Formal – Human characteristics Language, religion, etc. – Physical Climate, landform, etc. Functional – Defined by network, focal point, or node River system Trading system World Regions: Europe, Africa, etc. – Formal and functional

8 [Figure 2.2. Zurich. The largest city and financial center of Switzerland. Photo S. Toops]

9 [Figure 2.3 Istanbul. Asia is in the background, Europe is in the foreground, in between is the Bosporus, the historical divide between Europe and Asia. Photo S. Toops]

10 Environment Environmental determinism – People acting in a certain way according to their environment – Now considered mutually interactive Human determinism – People control their environment Environmental possibilism – Physical environment cannot determine what we can do but it can limit what we can achieve Resources – Renewable Recyclable: aluminum, paper Continuous flow: solar power, hydropower Short term: timber, soil, water – Non-renewable: fossil fuels ( coal, oil)

11 [Figure 2.4. Hunza. Pakistan. The Hunza Valley is irrigated from the glaciers in the surrounding mountains. Photo: S. Toops]

12 [Figure 2.5. Farm in Iowa. A piece of land, a farm, a home, a place, a geography. Photo S. Toops]

13 Maps: Tools for International Studies Maps are forms of communication that express ideas about the world – Specialized picture of mathematical precision Fundamentals – Scale: relationship between length of an object on a map and length in the real world – Centering and Orientation: can be centered anywhere on Earth – Projection: the way the Earth’s surface is distorted in a map Technological advancements: satellites – Geographic information system (GIS) – Remote sensing

14 [Map 2.1 World Map – Mercator Projection]

15 [Map 2.2 World Map – Robinson Projection]

16 Lying with Maps Maps are sometimes used for other purposes than just displaying a place Propaganda – Used during war to influence – Political views Can you think of any ways in which a map is used for some other purpose than as a means to find a place?

17 Conclusion Geography is critical in international studies – Analyze space, regions, and environments of Earth Geographical methods used by businesses, non- profit organizations and governmental organizations – State Department – WHO – WTO Geography is helpful in everyday life Geography matters


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