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Child Protection Awareness Raising 2008/2009 Jane Lake

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1 Child Protection Awareness Raising 2008/2009 Jane Lake
Welcome everyone to the Awareness Raising session. Recognise that the majority will already have done a full days work (after school sessions only). Tell them about you, your role or previous roles and any Safeguarding/ Child Protection experience that you may have. Say that you appreciate that the majority will have already done a full days work (after school sessions only) but stress the importance of CP training. 2008/2009 Jane Lake Senior Education Welfare Officer.

2 Looking after Yourself
The subject of this presentation may generate uncomfortable memories and feelings Anything shared during this session will remain confidential Acknowledge that CP training deals with sensitive issues that some participants may find difficult due to their own past experiences. Welcome any contributions or questions from the participants but also remind them that this would not be an appropriate areana to disclose past experiences or discuss current cases. Point out that if anyone should feel uncomfortable with any of the content they can leave the room and that you will be happy to discuss anything with them at the end

3 By the end of this course,
Aims and Objectives By the end of this course, you should be able to: Recognise your role in safeguarding children from harm Define the different categories of child abuse Explain how you should respond to child welfare concerns Emphasise that everyone has a statutory role in safeguarding Not only will you be looking at the 4 categories of abuse but also the signs and symptoms. You will also be giving a snapshot of Domestic Abuse and E-safety And just as importantly what they should do if they have concerns about a child, or should a child disclose Children are likely to talk to them about a child a range of issues including those which raise child protection concerns

4 What is “Safeguarding and Promoting Welfare”?
Protecting children from maltreatment Preventing impairment of children’s health or development Ensuring that children are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care; ….and undertaking that role so as to enable those children to have the optimum life chances such that they enter adulthood successfully This corresponds very much with the ‘Every Child Matters’ agenda and the five outcomes for children Be healthy Stay safe Enjoy and achieve Make a positive contribution Achieve economic well-being

5 Safeguarding Child Protection Intimate Care Staff Conduct
Restraint Staff Conduct Anti Bullying Policies Curriculum Safeguarding Attendance Managing Allegations Against Staff Behaviour Management Use this diagram to demonstrate that safeguarding covers more than just child protection. Ask for examples from the participants of how each area helps to safeguard children e.g: staff conduct; safe practice for the safety of staff and pupils curriculum; providing opportunities for pupils to learn about keeping safe (i.e. via Warrington LEA’s ‘self-protect’ project) managing allegations against staff; following procedures which protect staff and children building design; keeping any unwanted visitors out of school safe recruitment and selection; particularly topical in light of the Soham tragedy whistle blowing; to raise concerns about a colleague’s conduct, see Warrington Borough Council’s whistle blowing policy health and safety; a safe environment behaviour management; having clear strategies and consistent responses for managing behaviour attendance; so we know that our pupils are safe when they are absent anti-bullying policies; help to promote positive behaviour in staff and pupils Safe Built Environment Whistle blowing Health and Safety Safe Recruitment and Selection

6 Senior Designated Person
Acts as a source of support, advice and expertise within the school Liaises with other agencies about child protection concerns and referrals Attends refresher training every two years Ensures all staff have child protection training Explain that every school must have a senior designated person for child protection, plus at least one deputy. Briefly describe the role of the designated person – ie advice and support to collegaues plus reporting concerns to social care etc) Explain the all staff who work with childre, regardless of their role, need to have basic child protection training every 3 years – the designated person eveery 2 years

7 What Is Abuse? “Child Abuse consists of anything which individuals, institutions or processes do, or fail to do, which directly or indirectly harms children or damages their prospects of safe and healthy development into adulthood.” (National commission of enquiry into the prevention of child abuse) Abuse of power by someone older or stronger, which results in distress, actual harm or neglect for the victim. The abuser could be a family member, family friend, a professional, another child, internet friend, or more rarely a stranger. It could be an institution for example a school or a hospital or even These are the four main categories of abuse. Explain that you will also be looking at domestic abuse which although is not a separate Neglect Physical abuse Sexual abuse Emotional abuse

8 Each situation reported by someone.
1:8 – 1:10 have an experience of abuse in childhood. You have a crucial role in preventing suffering and getting action taken. Vulnerable children are those who would benefit from extra help from public agencies to optimise their life chances and for the risk of social exclusion is to be averted. Children in need are as defined in part III of the Children Act 1989 and are a subset of vulnerable children. Figure Source NSPCC December 2007

9 True or False? True or False?
Women do not sexually abuse children true / false In some cultures child abuse is acceptable true / false Disabled children are less likely to be abused true / false Children will often say they have been abused when they haven’t true / false Children are always safe when in groups true / false Research shows that child abusers come from deprived backgrounds and have been true / false assessed to have below average intelligence Groups of 2 or 3.

10 Domestic Violence Domestic Violence and abuse is the misuse of power and the exercise of control by one person over another within a close relationship. It may involve: physical violence emotional or psychological abuse sexual violence and abuse financial control controlling where you go and who you meet.

11 Possible Signs and Symptoms of Domestic Violence
Can include: Physical injuries Change in behaviour in school Aggression/anger towards parent Over protective of parent Introversion, withdrawal, depression

12 Neglect Persistent failure to meet a child’s basic and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of a child’s health or development. This may involve: a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food, shelter and clothing failing to protect a child from physical harm or danger failure to ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment unresponsiveness to a child’s basic emotional needs Use this as a definition of neglect, based on that given in the guide ‘Working Together to Safeguard Children’.

13 Possible Signs and Symptoms of Neglect
Can include: Constant hunger Poor personal hygiene Poor state of clothing Frequent lateness or non-attendance at school Untreated injuries/medical problems

14 Physical Abuse Shaking Hitting Throwing Poisoning Burning & scalding
Drowning Suffocating Fabricated & Induced Illness Use this as a definition of physical abuse, based on that given in the guide ‘Working Together to Safeguard Children’.

15 Signs of Physical Abuse
Common Sites for Accidental injury Forehead Crown Bony spinal protuberances Elbows Iliac crest Knees Shins Common Sites for Non-accidental injury Eyes Ears Cheeks Mouth Shoulder Chest Upper Arms Inner arms Stomach Genitals Front thighs Buttocks Back of thighs

16 Possible Signs and Symptoms of Physical Abuse
Can include: Unexplained injuries or burns, particularly if they are recurrent Improbable excuses given to explain injuries Refusal to discuss injuries Untreated injuries Fear of parents being contacted Arms and legs kept covered – even in hot weather Fear of medical help

17 Emotional Abuse It may involve:
Persistent emotional ill-treatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on his/her emotional development. It may involve: conveying to children they are worthless, unloved or inadequate conveying to children that they are valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person inappropriate expectations for their age or development causing children to feel frightened or in danger the exploitation or corruption of children Use this as a definition of emotional abuse, based on that given in the guide ‘Working Together to Safeguard Children’. As an example you could suggest that we might all have said things to a child that might not be ideal. This does not necessarily constitute emotional abuse. Draw attention to the words ‘severe’ and ‘persistent’. A further quote which may help to define emotional abuse and its impact is; ‘Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of ill-treatment of a child, though it may occur alone...Underlying emotional abuse may be as important, if not more so, than other more visible forms of abuse in terms of its impact on the child. Domestic violence, adult mental health problems and parental substance misuse may be features in families where children are exposed to such abuse.’ pgs 6-7 Working Together to Safeguard Children

18 Possible Signs and Symptoms of Emotional Abuse
Can include: Over-reaction to mistakes Sudden speech disorders Neurotic behaviour e.g. rocking, hair-twisting, thumb sucking Self mutilation Extremes of passivity or aggression

19 Sexual Abuse Forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, whether or NOT the child is aware of what is happening. Activities include:- physical contact, including penetrative and non-penetrative acts involving children looking at or in the production of pornographic material watching sexual activities encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways Use this as a definition of sexual abuse, based on that given in the guide ‘Working Together to Safeguard Children’. It is important to note here that; ‘All staff should clearly understand the need to maintain appropriate boundaries in their dealings with pupils. Intimate or sexual relationships between staff and pupils will be regarded as a grave breach of trust. Any sexual activity between a member of staff and a pupil under 18 years of age may be a criminal offence.’ Teachernet, Abuse of Trust More information can be obtained from the ‘Sexual Offences Act 2003’.

20 Possible Signs and Symptoms of Sexual Abuse
Can include: Vivid details of sexual activity Compulsive masturbation Sexual drawings Sexualised play with explicit acts Soreness of genitalia or bottom

21 What are the reasons children do not report abuse?
‘it was nobody else’s business’ ‘didn’t think it was serious or wrong’ ‘didn’t want parents to find out’ ‘didn’t want friends to find out’ ‘didn’t want the authorities to find out’ ‘was frightened’ (24%) ‘didn’t think I would be believed’ (13%) ‘threats from abuser’ (7%) ‘it was my fault’ National College for School Leadership

22 What to do if ?

23 Golden Rules DO DON’T Listen and accept Try not to interrupt
Tell the child that they have done the right thing by telling you Inform the child of what you are going to do Make accurate notes using all the child’s words as soon as possible Inform the designated person for child protection DON’T Promise confidentiality Investigate Ask leading questions Ask the child to repeat the disclosure over and over

24 Keeping Yourself Safe Always keep a recording of any behaviour or incident that could compromise you as a worker ie; If the child makes any allegation against you or another member of staff Or you are touched you in a sexual manner or inappropriate place

25 Recording Brief notes at the time, if possible
Write-up using child’s own words (keep original notes) Record date, time and behaviour Use Body Map to record injuries and write a description (do not photograph injuries) Consult immediately with the designated person for child protection Seek support for yourself


27 Why is education so important in this area?
55% access the internet everyday 47% for an hour or more 21% liked IM/Chat the most 15% used gaming sites 11% used Social Networking sites 33% had access in their bedrooms 25% have met someone offline 83% have taken a friend One of the aims CEOP has is to engage and empower children, young people, parents and the community through information and education. The internet has become integral to children’s lives, and we need to be able to give them the tools to use the internet safely. This is also paramount with regards to parents and giving you the knowledge to know what your children are using the internet for. Here you will see some more stats that were obtained from year olds through the Thinkuknow campaign. The most worrying of all are the last 2 bullet points- 25% of young people asked said they had met someone in the real world who they first met online, and ¼ of these did not take anyone with them. Of the ¾ of young people who did take someone, 83% took a friend rather than a trusted adult. So, not only are they putting themselves at risk, but also their friend. This is where educating people is so important- children need to know what the possible risks are from using the internet and how to manage those risks, and parents need to know more about what their children are actually using the internet for. Hopefully this next section will give you examples of what young people do online environments. Sources CEOP Questionnaire Analysis 2007 27

28 Risks of using the internet
Paedophiles use the internet to meet young people People lying to others online Bullying using the internet (Cyber bulling) Seeing inappropriate images and material Viruses and pop ups The internet is a fantastic resource and can stimulate learning for your child. The internet has many positives, but you need to remember it also carries risks. 28

29 This is the Think know website- www. thinkuknow. co. uk
This is the Think know website- There is lots of information, including advice and guidance for both children and adults. This ranges from current trends regarding mobile phones, to how to stay safe whilst using social networking sites. The educational programme Thinkuknow consists of 3 main themes- How to have fun (all the fun things young people use the internet for- playing games, downloading music etc), How to stay in control (what the possible risks are from the fun things and what they can do themselves to make their online experience a safe one) and How to report (where they can go to report inappropriate behaviour online and what this process entails). When you get home, I would recommend saving the site to your favourites and encouraging your children to also have a look. 29

30 Referral and Threshold consultation Service
Do you have concerns about a child? Are you unsure whether to make a social care referral? Children and Young People’s Services provide a consultation service to all professionals to consider if the concerns they have about a child or young person meet the threshold for a referral to social care. The service will discuss the concerns you have without sharing identifying information about the child or young person, therefore consent to share information from the parents / carers is not required at this stage. If the concerns do not meet the threshold for a social care referral, the practitioner will provide advice and signposting. This is not a referral taking facility and actual referrals will still need to be directed to local assessment teams You can contact the service on: /384574 Monday – Friday 9.00am – 5.00 (Friday 4.00pm)

31 Barriers to diagnosis ‘The biggest barrier to diagnosis is the existence of emotional blocks in the minds of professionals. These can be so powerful that they prevent diagnosis even being considered in quite obvious cases’. All those working with children should be warned that their ‘overwhelming impulse on confronting their first case is to cover it up.’ British Medical Journal (1989) Use this quote from the British Medical Journal to demonstrate that a common barrier to identifying child abuse can be the reluctance in the minds of professionals to identify abuse.

32 “Don’t have nightmares”
However…….. “Don’t have nightmares” because, The overwhelming majority of children do come from very warm and caring homes.

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