Presentation on theme: "Wiltshire Whole School Child Protection Training: Foundation level for ALL staff and volunteers September 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Wiltshire Whole School Child Protection Training: Foundation level for ALL staff and volunteers September 2014
Objectives Participants will: recognise signs and symptoms of child abuse know what action to take if they have concerns about a pupil or an adult
Key documentation for all staff: 1.‘ What to do’ flow chart. 2.‘Allegations Against School Staff’ flow chart 3.‘Keeping Children Safe in Education. Information for all school and college staff’ DfE April 2014
Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is defined as … Protecting children from maltreatment Preventing the impairment of health, or development ensuring that children are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care; and taking action to enable all children to have the best life chances. Working Together 2013
Safeguarding includes issues such as: Pupils’ health and safety Bullying Racist abuse Harassment and discrimination Use of physical intervention Meeting the needs of pupils with medical conditions Providing first aid Drug and substance misuse Educational visits Intimate care Internet safety School security
Child Protection Child Protection is one element of safeguarding. It refers to those actions that are taken to protect specific children who may be suffering, or at risk of suffering, significant harm.
Child Protection is everyone’s responsibility Social care Police Education Health Voluntary groups (e.g. Scouts, NSPCC, sports groups, faith groups…) Probation service Members of the public
Child Protection in schools School staff spend more time with children and young people than staff in any other organisation. School staff know children well and are able to spot new or different behaviours. Schools provide a universal service. Schools can provide a ‘safe place’ where pupils can ask for help.
What is ‘child abuse’? When a child is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm, as a result of someone inflicting harm or failing to act to prevent harm May happen in the child’s family, or in a community or institutional setting A ‘child’ is anyone under the age of 18.
‘Significant harm’ means: Ill treatment or impairment of health or development ‘Development’ can be physical, intellectual, emotional, social or behavioural ‘Health’ can be physical or mental ‘Ill treatment’ includes sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical abuse, and neglect Significant harm can be a single traumatic event, or a series of events over a period of time.
The four categories of child abuse Physical abuse Emotional abuse Sexual abuse Neglect
Physical abuse: may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces, illness in a child.
Physical abuse Signs and symptoms may include: physical injuries, such as cuts, bruises, fractures unexplained or unusual injuries improbable excuses, reluctance or refusal to explain injuries reluctance to change clothing for games or PE fear of physical contact fear of suspected abuser being contacted.
Physical abuse How did it happen? Does the explanation fit the injury? Does the explanation change? Is there a reluctance to explain the injury? Are there any other concerns about this pupil?
Emotional abuse: This is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development. It may involve conveying to children that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person. Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of maltreatment of a child, though it may occur alone. Working Together 2013
Emotional abuse Signs and symptoms may include: feeling depressed withdrawal from social interaction low self-esteem fearfulness, increased anxiety feeling of shame / guilt mood changes not trusting others extreme dependence on others telling lies aggressive behaviour substance misuse self harm
Common types of emotional abuse: Isolating / scapegoating Abusive expectations (demands, criticism) Ignoring, denying (refusal to listen or understand child’s feelings) Exploiting Constant chaos Emotional blackmail (threatening) Aggression (blaming, commanding, threatening) Dominating Verbal assaults (sarcasm, berating) Unpredictable behaviours (mood changes, emotional outbursts) Domestic violence within the home
Sexual abuse Involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. This may involve physical contact or non- penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing rubbing and touching the outside of clothing. It may also include non- contact activities such as involving children in, looking at, or in the involvement of, sexual images, watching sexual activities or grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet). Working Together 2013
Sexual abuse Signs and symptoms may include: frequent need to urinate / urinary tract infections age-inappropriate sexual knowledge, language, behaviours regressive behaviours such as thumb sucking becoming withdrawn, isolated inability to focus reluctance to go home bed-wetting drawing sexually explicit pictures over-reacting to criticism pregnancy going missing self harm Suicide attempts
Child Sexual Exploitation 1 CSE is the sexual exploitation of children and young people under the age of 18. It involves exploitative situations and relationships where young people (or a third person) receives something (eg: food, shelter, drugs, cash, attention) in exchange for performing sexual acts.
Child Sexual Exploitation 2 Indicators may include: young people who are: going missing for periods of time or regularly coming home late regularly missing school or education or not taking part in education appearing with unexplained gifts or new possessions, in particular new mobile phones (given in order to communicate directly with the abuses) may be involved in, or vulnerable to child sexual exploitation.
‘Grooming’ for sexual abuse An abuser may ‘groom’ a victim by giving or withholding rewards such as gifts or special attention They may use physical or psychological threats to ensure co-operation The grooming process is often well planned and very effective, ensuring that parents and other adults trust the abuser and find it difficult to believe that abuse has taken place
Abusers who groom can be: in a position of trust, leadership good at their job able to win respect, affection, or fear from colleagues charismatic articulate domineering, bullies caring dutiful, over-helpful Manipulative and always distorted in their thinking.
Neglect Persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and / or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development. Neglect may involve failure to: –provide adequate food, shelter, clothing –Protect child from physical harm or danger (including exposure to domestic abuse)
Neglect Signs and symptoms may include: constant hunger emaciation compulsive scavenging poor personal hygiene constant tiredness clothing poor, dirty, inappropriate for weather untreated medical problems poor social relationships destructive tendencies
Keeping Children Safe in Education (DfE April 2014) “ If, at any point, there is a risk of immediate serious harm to a child a referral should be made to children’s social care immediately. Anybody can make a referral. If the child’s situation does not appear to be improving the staff member with concerns should press for re-consideration. Concerns should always lead to help for the child at some point.”
Early Help “Providing early help is more effective in promoting the welfare of children than reacting later. Early help means providing support as soon as a problem emerges, at any point in a child’s life, from the foundation years through to the teenage years”. Working Together 2013
Response to a disclosure. listen carefully and take it seriously stay calm, however shocked you may be reassure the person explain what you will do next report urgently to the Designated Safeguarding Lead (DSL) in the absence of DSL or Head, take immediate steps to protect the child or individual if necessary record the disclosure fully, in accordance with the school’s policy.
Response to a disclosure. DO NOT: ask leading questions try to obtain more information by ‘interviewing’ people before taking advice appear shocked or angry make judgements promise anything you can’t deliver, including keeping secrets confront or question an alleged abuser
Recording a disclosure: DO use your school’s standard recording form use the child’s own words, don’t paraphrase make your record as soon as possible after the event, so that you don’t forget anything keep it brief and to the point distinguish between fact and your opinions ask for help with writing it up if you need it include information about what action was taken afterwards, even a decision that no action is needed remember the Data Protection Act: adequate, accurate, securely held.
Referral to Children’s Social Care The school may want to ring Children’s Social Care for advice and guidance before deciding whether to make a referral – this is welcomed and encouraged. T he Designated Safeguarding Lead will normally tell parents before making a referral, unless doing so might place this child, or another at increased risk of harm. When making a referral, the school must make clear the full reasons for doing so. If a referral is made by phone, it must be confirmed in writing immediately. Children’s Social Care must notify the school of the outcome of any referral they make – the school must chase this if not received.
Response to a Child Protection referral The Local Authority must make enquiries where there is ‘reasonable cause to suspect that a child in their area is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm’. The enquiries are carried out by the Children’s Social Care teams. School staff must co-operate with CP enquiries, and should be consulted in multi-agency strategy discussions to decide how these should progress. These are sometimes referred to as ‘s.47 enquiries’
Data protection and information sharing The seven golden rules 1.The Data Protection Act is not a barrier to information sharing. 2.Be open and honest. 3.Seek advice if in doubt. 4.Share with consent where appropriate. 5.Consider safety and well-being. 6.Make sure it is necessary, proportionate, relevant, accurate, timely and secure. 7.Keep a record
What if I’m not sure? Your responsibility is to act if you have any concerns about a child or young person, by discussing and passing on your concern to the Designated Safeguarding Lead, in writing using your school’s recording form at the earliest opportunity. It is not your responsibility to decide whether or not abuse has taken place and/or the identity of the abuser.
Diversity matters Vulnerability of some children with special needs Cultural issues Children who are privately fostered Children missing from education Looked-after children
Other factors which may increase pupils’ vulnerability Parents/carers who misuse drugs or alcohol Domestic violence within the family unit Poor mental health of parents/carers Chaotic, unsettled or transient lifestyles Lack of parental control Those for whom English is not the first language Armed Forces children