Presentation on theme: "Welcome Notes for Trainers Welcome Introduction (Trainer/s)"— Presentation transcript:
1Welcome Notes for Trainers Welcome Introduction (Trainer/s) Introduction (Participants – depending on size/nature of group)Housekeeping (Fire/Toilets/Refreshments/Mobile Phones etc.)
2Aims & ObjectivesThe aim of this brief training session is to raise awareness regarding the safeguarding of children and to remind you of your responsibilities whenever you have a concern about a child.By the end of this session you will be aware of:what is meant by the term safeguarding children;the various types of intervention and their thresholds;some signs and symptoms of possible abuse;what you should do if you have a concern for a child’s welfare or safety.Notes for TrainersRemind the group of the aims and objectives of the session.Remind participants that they need to discuss future training needs with their line manager, including the need for attending relevant multi-agency training provided by the Local Safeguarding Children Board.
3Everybody's Business‘All those who come into contact with children and families in their everyday work, including practitioners who do not have a specific role in relation to child protection, have a duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children.’(Source: What To Do If You’re Worried A Child is Being Abused, 2006)Notes for TrainersGovernment guidance places a duty on us all to safeguard children. This does not mean that we all have to become experts in safeguarding children but we should have sufficient knowledge and understanding to enable us to know when to be concerned about a child and to know what basic actions to take when we have a concern.
4Good Outcomes Family/ friends live several hundred miles away. No local friends or family.Family/ friends live several hundred miles away.Moved here to escape domestic violence.A young, single parent - new to the area.Struggling with material provision - children/ home.Having some financial difficulty.Mother’s care of the children is very good.Three children aged 4 months, 3 and 5years.She is beginning to feel very low on energy.Some early signs of depression.Notes for TrainersAutomatic Animation - elements of this slide will appear automatically one at a time.This exercise requires participants to consider the number and range of agencies that could potentially be involved in supporting families.Show the items on this slide and ask participants (whole group word-storm or divide into small groups for discussion with subsequent feedback to the whole group) to consider the question on the next slide.A handout is a available if you wish to use this as a small group exercise.
5Good OutcomesWho could become involved in supporting the family and what might they be able to offer?Notes for TrainersIn the large group either word-storm or take feedback following the smaller group discussions.List responses.
6The child the child tells a teacher that these were caused when his mother grabbed his arm and smacked his leg.Good OutcomesA six years old child has a number of small bruises on his upper arm anda bruise on his leg.The teacher is aware that the family have housing and financial problems.The child says his mother was very upset today when the baby was crying and mum always cries and shouts at them.Notes for TrainersAutomatic Animation - elements of this slide will appear automatically one at a time.This is a similar exercise to the previous one. This time to look at the agencies involved in enquiries regarding child protection concerns (including providing information to those making the enquiries) and/or in providing services under a child protection plan.Again this can be done as a whole group discussion or in smaller groups with subsequent feedback to the whole group. The task is to answer the question on the next slide.
7Good OutcomesWho would become involved in response to this situation (by making child protection enquiries, by providing information to any enquiries/assessment or by offering the family support as part of any plan?)Notes for TrainersIn the large group either word-storm or take feedback following the smaller group discussions.List responses.
8Good Outcomes Who would become involved in response to this situation? Note that this is the same family as in the earlier case. The difference is that 8 months have passed with little or no support for the family.Notes for TrainersMany of the agencies that could have offered support when this was a ‘lower level’ concern will need to be involved now that there is a child protection concern.Unfortunately for the family, this support was not made available at the earlier stage.Had earlier support been made available, the current situation might have been prevented.
9Good OutcomesAchieving good outcomes for children requires all those with responsibility for assessment and the provision of services to work together according to an agreed plan of action.(Source: What To Do If You’re Worried A Child is Being Abused, 2006)Notes for TrainersWhen individuals and organisations take their safeguarding responsibilities seriously and work in close cooperation with other colleagues and agencies the outcomes for children is better.
10Good OutcomesLord Laming [March 2009] reiterated the importance of frontline professionals getting to know children as individual people and, as a matter of routine, considering how their situation feels to them.(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.15, p32)Notes for TrainersUse the message in this slide in conjunction with the next slide.
11Good OutcomesOfsted’s evaluation of 50 Serious Case Reviews conducted between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2008 highlighted ‘the failure of all professionals to see the situation from the child’s perspective and experience; to see and speak to the children; to listen to what they said, to observe how they were and to take serious account of their views in supporting their needs as probably the single most consistent failure in safeguarding work with children.’(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.15, p32)Notes for TrainersAchieving good outcomes for children begins with an understanding of their individual needs.
12Safeguarding Children Safeguarding & Promoting WelfarePreventing impairment of children’s health or developmentProtecting children from mistreatmentEnablingchildren to have optimum life chances and to enter adulthood successfullyEnsuring childrengrow up with the provision of safe and effective careNotes for TrainersAutomatic Animation - elements of this slide will appear automatically one at a time.This slide illustrates the various elements or safeguarding and promoting welfare.Inform participants that the rest of the session will focus mainly on identifying those concerns that could lead to a referral to Social Care.(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.20, p34)
13Safeguarding Children Child ProtectionChild protection isa part of safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children. This refers to the activity that is undertaken to protect specific children who are suffering, or are at risk of suffering, significant harm.Notes for TrainersChild Protection is an important part of safeguarding children.(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.23, p35)
14area is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm.” Safeguarding ChildrenChild ProtectionSection 47 of the Children Act 1989 places a duty on local authorities to make enquiries if there is “reasonable cause to suspect that a child who lives, or is found, in theirarea is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm.”Notes for TrainersWorking Together to Safeguard Children (2010) states, “If somebody believes or suspects that a child may be suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm then s/he should always refer his or her concerns to the local authority children’s social care services.”London SCB Child Protection Procedures state, “All professionals in agencies with contact with children and members of their families must make a referral to LA children’s social care if there are signs that a child or an unborn baby is suffering significant harm through abuse or neglect or Is likely to suffer significant harm in the future.”It is therefore everyone’s responsibility to contact Social Care if they have reason to believe that a child may be suffering (or likely to suffer) ‘significant harm’. It is the responsibility of Social Care to take the lead in enquiries to establish whether or not significant harm is actually occurring or is likely.‘Significant Harm’ is described on the next 4 slides.
15Significant Harm‘harm’ means ill-treatment or the impairment of health or development, including, for example, impairment suffered from seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another;‘development’ means physical, intellectual, emotional, social or behavioural development;‘health’ means physical or mental health; and‘ill-treatment’ includes sexual abuse and forms of ill-treatment which are not physical.(Source: Children Act 1989 as amended by the Adoption andChildren Act 2002)Notes for TrainersThe Adoption and Children Act 2002 added the phrase “including, for example, impairment suffered from seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another”.Significant Harm therefore also includes, for example, the emotional harm caused by living in environments where domestic violence occurs.
16Significant HarmUnder s31 (10) of the Children Act 2004, the question of whether harm suffered by a child is significant relates specifically to the child’s health and development. Their health or development should be compared with that which could reasonably be expected of a similar child.(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.28, p36)Notes for Trainers
17Significant HarmThere are no absolute criteria on which to rely when judging what constitutes significant harm. Consideration of the severity of ill-treatment may include the degree and the extent of physical harm, the duration and frequency of abuse and neglect, the extent of premeditation, and the presence or degree of threat, coercion, sadism and bizarre or unusual elements. Each of these elements has been associated with more severe effects on the child, and/or relatively greater difficulty in helping the child overcome the adverse impact of the maltreatment. Sometimes, a single traumatic event may constitute significant harm.(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.28, p36)Notes for Trainers
18Significant HarmMore often, significant harm is a compilation of significant events, both acute and long-standing, which interrupt, change or damage the child’s physical and psychological development. Some children live in family and social circumstances where their health and development are neglected. For them, it is the corrosiveness of long-term emotional, physical or sexual abuse that causes impairment to the extent of constituting significant harm. In each case, it is necessary to consider any maltreatment alongside the family’s strengths and supports.(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.28, p36)Notes for Trainers
19Vulnerability Children who may be more vulnerable to being harmed babies and younger childrendisabled childrenchildren who are isolatedchildren who are already thought of as a problem (e.g. children in care; children in secure accommodation, children with emotional/behavioural difficulties)Notes for TrainersVulnerability of babies and children with disabilities is explored further on the next two slides.
20VulnerabilityThe under-ones are particularly vulnerable to abuse (although it should be remembered that abuse can happen at any age).The homicide rate for under-ones is nearly five times greater than the average.Babies under one have the highest rate of child protection plans.Notes for Trainers
21Vulnerability Disabled children are: 3.8 time more likely to be neglected;3.8 more likely to be physically abused;3.1 times more likely to be emotionally abused.Notes for Trainers(Source: Safeguarding disabled children-Practice guidance - DCSF 2009)
22Vulnerability Professionals must take special care to help safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young peoplewho may be living in particularly stressfulcircumstances. These include families:living in poverty;where there is domestic violence;where a parent has a mental illness;where a parent is misusing drugs or alcohol;where a parent has a learning disability;that face racism and other forms of social isolation;living in areas with a lot of crime, poor housing and high unemployment.(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, Ch. 9)Notes for TrainersChildren can be vulnerable due to their home circumstances.22
23Safeguarding Children Children in Need… vulnerability is such that they are unlikely to reach or maintain a satisfactory level of health or development, or their health and development will be significantly impaired, without the provision of services;those who are disabled.Notes for TrainersSection 17 of The Children Act 1989 states:For the purposes of this Part a child shall be taken to be in need if—(a) he is unlikely to achieve or maintain, or to have the opportunity of achieving or maintaining, a reasonable standard of health or development without the provision for him of services by a local authority under this Part;(b) his health or development is likely to be significantly impaired, or further impaired, without the provision for him of such services; or(c) he is disabled,and “family”, in relation to such a child, includes any person who has parental responsibility for the child and any other person with whom he has been living.(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.25, p35)
24Safeguarding Children Children in NeedLocal authorities have a duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children in need.Notes for Trainerss17 of The Children Act 1989 requires the local authority to carry out an assessment and ensure provision of services for children who are in need.The next slides examine the location of s47, s17 and non-statutory services within the context of a ‘continuum of need’.(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.25, p35)
25Common Assessment Framework Child protection needs Continuum of Needs47Common Assessment Frameworks17Child protection needsComplex support needsSimple support needsEveryday needsNotes for TrainersAutomatic Animation - elements of this slide will appear automatically.Everyday, universal needs met by universal services.Simple support needs can be assessed and met via the Common Assessment Framework (CAF) if the family want this approach.Referrals to Social Care for an Initial Assessment for services as a ‘child in need’ can be made, if necessary, following an assessment under the CAF.HOWEVER:Whenever there are indications that a child may be suffering significant harm (or indications that there may be a likelihood of significant harm) a referral should be made immediately to Social Care, following London Safeguarding Children Board Child Protection Procedures.Child Protection Referrals should be made by telephoning Social Care, with written confirmation being forwarded to them within 48 hours.The following slides illustrate the issues further (ask for participants’ opinions at each stage of the following evolution.)
26Child protection needs Common Assessment Framework Continuum of NeedEveryday needsSimple support needsChild protection needss47Complex support needss17Common Assessment FrameworkHelen has a two month old son.Notes for TrainersAsk for participants’ opinions – where does this situation sit on the continuum.Unless there are other indications to the contrary, this would sit at the ‘everyday needs’ level. Universal needs being met by universal services.
27Child protection needs Common Assessment Framework Continuum of NeedEveryday needsSimple support needsChild protection needss47Complex support needss17Common Assessment FrameworkShe was in care as a child.Notes for TrainersAsk for participants’ opinions – where does this situation sit on the continuum.Unless there are other indications to the contrary, this would sit at the ‘everyday needs’ level. Universal needs being met by universal services.If Helen is coping with her life and with the demands of parenthood, there is no need to assume the need for any higher level response because of Helen’s past.
28Child protection needs Common Assessment Framework Continuum of NeedEveryday needsSimple support needsChild protection needss47Complex support needss17Common Assessment FrameworkAs a child, she was sexually abused by her father and later by a care worker.Notes for TrainersAsk for participants’ opinions – where does this situation sit on the continuum.Unless there are other indications to the contrary, this would sit at the ‘everyday needs’ level. Universal needs being met by universal services.If Helen is coping with her life and with the demands of parenthood, there is no need to assume the need for any higher level response because of Helen’s past.If Helen requires help in dealing with some of the issues from her past, together with any simple support needs in coping with some of the practical aspects of parenthood, a CAF could be considered.
29Child protection needs Common Assessment Framework Continuum of NeedEveryday needsSimple support needsChild protection needss47Complex support needss17Common Assessment FrameworkShe has mental health problems and learning difficulties.Notes for TrainersIf there are indications that the degree of Helen’s difficulties may have an impact on her parenting capacity, an Initial Assessment should be carried out to establish the likely impact and to put a plan of support in place.
30Child protection needs Common Assessment Framework Continuum of NeedEveryday needsSimple support needsChild protection needss47Complex support needss17Common Assessment FrameworkShe is struggling to understand and meet her son’s needs.Notes for TrainersAn Initial Assessment should be carried out.
31Child protection needs Common Assessment Framework Continuum of NeedEveryday needsSimple support needsChild protection needss47Complex support needss17Common Assessment FrameworkHer son has a scratch and a bruise on his face and she is unable to explain this.Notes for TrainersThis should be referred to social care immediately as a concern regarding the possibility of significant harm.
32Child protection needs Common Assessment Framework Continuum of NeedEveryday needsSimple support needsChild protection needss47Complex support needss17Common Assessment FrameworkNotes for TrainersIf time/group size allow, complete the ‘Continuum of Need’ exercise from the pack.Exercise
33Legislation, Guidance, Procedure Notes for TrainersThe above documents represent the main legislation and Government guidance.Point out that there are other guidance documents but the slide indicates the main, basic documents.Children Act Education Act Children Act 2004
34Legislation, Guidance, Procedure Notes for TrainersThe document “What to do if you are worried…..” is a useful guide for all workers and volunteers and outlines the basic responsibilities in responding to child protection concerns.Children Act Education Act Children Act 2004
35Legislation, Guidance, Procedure Notes for TrainersAutomatic Animation - elements of this slide will appear automatically.The slide shows part of a flowchart from ‘What to do if …..”It highlights a basic responsibility of all staff and volunteers, i.e. to know when they should be worried about a child and know who in their organisation they must discuss their concerns with.An important aspect of basic practice is that workers must always discuss a concern about the welfare of child with the relevant person.Note: Details of person to consult are given on the next slide.
36In this establishment, the person you should talk to is: or, in their absence:Notes for TrainersPlease amend slide to indicate the people within your organisation who must be contacted when there are concerns regarding children.
37Recognising Abuse NEGLECT PHYSICAL ABUSE SEXUAL ABUSE EMOTIONAL ABUSE Children can be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting, by those known to them or, more rarely, by a stranger for example, via the internet. They may be abused by an adult or adults, or another child or children.(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.32, p37)Notes for TrainersIn deciding whether or not a child protection concern exists, consider the issue of ‘significant harm’ discussed earlier and also consider the definitions of abuse as defined on the following.Remember, a referral to Social Care should be made if there are indications that a child may be suffering significant harm or that significant harm may be likely.
38Recognising Abuse Physical Abuse Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces, illness in a child.(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.33, p38)Notes for TrainersA referral to Social Care should be made whenever there is cause to believe that an injury to a child has been caused by an adult.
39Recognising Abuse Sexual Abuse Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including assault by penetration (for example, rape or oral sex) or non-penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing, rubbing and touching outside of clothing. They may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, sexual images, watching sexual activities, encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways, grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet). Sexual abuse is not solely perpetrated by adult males. Women can also commit acts of sexual abuse, as can other children.(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.35, p38)Notes for TrainersA referral to Social Care should be made whenever there is cause to believe that a child is or has been sexually abused, including sexual abuse by another child.
40Recognising Abuse Neglect Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physicaland/or psychological needs, likely to result in the seriousimpairment of the child’s health or development. Neglect mayoccur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse.Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failingto:provide adequate food, clothing and shelter (including exclusion from home or abandonment);protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger;ensure adequate supervision (including the use of inadequate care-givers); orensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment.It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’sbasic emotional needs.(Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.36, p39)Notes for TrainersFrom time to time, parents will fail to live up to the exacting standards of perfect parenthood. So:note some key words in this definition. Neglect is a persistent failure to meet a child’s basic needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development.However, some apparent ‘one-off’ incidents should also be referred for assessment, e.g. an incident leading to a serious injury to a child or a ‘home alone’ incident.
41Recognising Abuse Emotional Abuse Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development. It may involve conveying to children that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person. It may include not giving the child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or ‘making fun’ of what they say or how they communicate.cont. ….Notes for TrainersAgain there are some key words in the definition. In terms of the behaviour of the adult, this is referred to as being persistent emotional maltreatment. In terms of the impact on the child, this is described as severe and persistent adverse effects.Continued on next slide.
42Recognising Abuse Emotional Abuse (cont.) It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. These may include interactions that are beyond the child’s developmental capability, as well as overprotection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child participating in normal social interaction. It may involve seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another. It may involve serious bullying (including cyberbullying), causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger, or the exploitation or corruption of children. Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of maltreatment of a child, though it may occur alone.(Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.34, p38)Notes for TrainersIt is accepted that physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect have an emotional impact on the victim. The abuse referred to in this slide is a ‘stand alone’ form of emotional harm involving parental coldness, rejection or hostility towards the child or the impact of living in a household where verbal and physical violence is a feature.Research informs us that children growing up in households that are ‘low in warmth and high in criticism’ can be emotionally damaged as a result.
43Recognising Abuse Exercise: What are the signs of: Physical Abuse Sexual AbuseEmotional AbuseNeglectLIST 3/5 etc. under each categoryNotes for TrainersWhole group word-storm or divide into small groups for discussion with subsequent feedback to the whole group to complete the task.Amend the final bullet point on this slide to reflect the task that you wish to set.
44Now see handout ….. Notes for Trainers There is a handout in the pack, taken from the London Child Protection Procedures, covering the areas indicated in this slide.Now see handout …..
45RespondingTry to be available to be spoken to. The child may not be ready when you are.Think about what you might say/do/how you present before it happens.Take time to read local C.P. procedures and guidelines.Listen carefully to what the child says without interrupting.Keep an open mind about what you are told.Take any disclosure seriously, even if you cannot see any injury which would support the story.Notes for TrainersAutomatic Animation - elements of this slide will appear automatically one at a time.First of three similar slides.
46Responding Stay calm - don’t show shock or horror. Be reassuring - tell the child that they were right to tell/have done nothing wrong etc.Be sensitive - arrange a safe and private environment for the child to talk.Be honest - don’t make promises that you can’t keep.Be supportive - put arrangements in place for initial support.Be responsive - acknowledge how difficult it was for the child to tell, explain what needs to happen next.Notes for TrainersAutomatic Animation - elements of this slide will appear automatically one at a time.
47Responding Don’t promise confidentiality. Don’t delay action in response to a disclosure.Don’t pre-judge what you are told or make assumptions.Don’t be afraid of being wrong, or be concerned about starting an investigation - you will be supported.At the earliest opportunity make a written record.Notes for TrainersAutomatic Animation - elements of this slide will appear automatically one at a time.
48? Responding Questions should be: Necessary – the purpose of questions at this stage is to establish whether or not there is a concern, not to interrogate the child or conduct an investigation.Non-leading – do not use questions that suggest an answer.Open – avoid questions that invite only a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer.Notes for TrainersThe issue of asking children questions when there may be a child protection concerns has caused some anxiety among workers/volunteers in the past.It is true to say that children should not be interrogated or questioned in a way that amounts to an investigation that should be conducted by the police or enquiries that should be made by Social Care.However all workers and volunteers are charged with the responsibility of knowing when they should be concerned.There will be occasions when a worker/volunteer is unsure about what they are seeing or what they are being told by a child. They will need to ask questions in order to clarify what they are seeing or being told.General advice about questions is given in this slide and the basic message should be that workers/volunteers should ask questions that enable them to establish whether or not a concern exists but that they need give some thought to the type of questions used.
49Legislation, Guidance, Procedure ALWAYSNotes for TrainersA reminder that any concern about a child must be discussed with the relevant person within the organisation.Take this opportunity to mention that, if there is any uncertainty or disagreement about required action during such discussions, Social Care should be contacted for advice.
50Making a ReferralAlways telephone children’s services without delay if you believe that a child has suffered or is at risk of suffering harm.Parents should be told of yourconcern and that you intend to refer (unless informing parents would place the child at risk of harm) – see London Procedures – if in doubt, seek advice.You do not need parental agreement to make a referral in respect of a child at risk of harm.Notes for TrainersFirst of three slides giving advice about making a referral.
51Making a ReferralWhenever you make a telephone referral, always back this up in writing (within 48 hours) using your local authority’s referral form.Notes for Trainers
52Making a ReferralIf your referral is in respect of support for a Child-in Need where the threshold of significant harm has not been reached, a written referral can be submitted to children’s services. This is sometimes made afterassessment under the Common Assessment Framework has indicated that it is required.An assessment under the Common Assessment Framework and/or referral for support for a ‘Child in Need’ should only occur with parental consent.Notes for Trainers
53ResponsibilitiesKnow your establishment’s child protection procedures.Know how to recognise the signs that should cause concern.Discuss your concerns about a child with your manager, a senior manager or the person with responsibility for child protection.Always make a referral to the local authority children’s services department when you have cause to believe that a child has suffered and/or may suffer harm.Notes for TrainersAutomatic Animation - elements of this slide will appear automatically one at a time.Conclude by reminding everyone present about their basic responsibilities.Any questions.Session concludes.Seek advice from the local authority children’s services department if in any doubt about making a referral.