Presentation on theme: "The aim of this brief training session is to raise awareness regarding the safeguarding of children and to remind you of your responsibilities whenever."— Presentation transcript:
The aim of this brief training session is to raise awareness regarding the safeguarding of children and to remind you of your responsibilities whenever you have a concern about a child. By the end of this session you will be aware of: what is meant by the term safeguarding children; the various types of intervention and their thresholds; some signs and symptoms of possible abuse; what you should do if you have a concern for a childs welfare or safety.
All those who come into contact with children and families in their everyday work, including practitioners who do not have a specific role in relation to child protection, have a duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. (Source: What To Do If Youre Worried A Child is Being Abused, 2006)
A young, single parent - new to the area. Moved here to escape domestic violence. No local friends or family. Family/ friends live several hundred miles away. Three children aged 4 months, 3 and 5years. Having some financial difficulty. Struggling with material provision - children/ home. Mothers care of the children is very good. She is beginning to feel very low on energy. Some early signs of depression.
Who could become involved in supporting the family and what might they be able to offer?
A six years old child has a number of small bruises on his upper arm and a bruise on his leg. The child says his mother was very upset today when the baby was crying and mum always cries and shouts at them. The child the child tells a teacher that these were caused when his mother grabbed his arm and smacked his leg. The teacher is aware that the family have housing and financial problems.
Who would become involved in response to this situation (by making child protection enquiries, by providing information to any enquiries/assessment or by offering the family support as part of any plan?)
Who would become involved in response to this situation? Note that this is the same family as in the earlier case. The difference is that 8 months have passed with little or no support for the family.
Achieving good outcomes for children requires all those with responsibility for assessment and the provision of services to work together according to an agreed plan of action. (Source: What To Do If Youre Worried A Child is Being Abused, 2006)
Lord Laming [March 2009] reiterated the importance of frontline professionals getting to know children as individual people and, as a matter of routine, considering how their situation feels to them. (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.15, p32)
Ofsteds evaluation of 50 Serious Case Reviews conducted between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2008 highlighted the failure of all professionals to see the situation from the childs perspective and experience; to see and speak to the children; to listen to what they said, to observe how they were and to take serious account of their views in supporting their needs as probably the single most consistent failure in safeguarding work with children. (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.15, p32)
Protecting children from mistreatment Preventing impairment of childrens health or development Ensuring children grow up with the provision of safe and effective care (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.20, p34) Enabling children to have optimum life chances and to enter adulthood successfully
Child protection is a part of safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children. This refers to the activity that is undertaken to protect specific children who are suffering, or are at risk of suffering, significant harm. (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.23, p35)
Section 47 of the Children Act 1989 places a duty on local authorities to make enquiries if there is reasonable cause to suspect that a child who lives, or is found, in their area is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm.
harm means ill-treatment or the impairment of health or development, including, for example, impairment suffered from seeing or hearing the ill- treatment of another; development means physical, intellectual, emotional, social or behavioural development; health means physical or mental health; and ill-treatment includes sexual abuse and forms of ill-treatment which are not physical. (Source: Children Act 1989 as amended by the Adoption and Children Act 2002)
Under s31 (10) of the Children Act 2004, the question of whether harm suffered by a child is significant relates specifically to the childs health and development. Their health or development should be compared with that which could reasonably be expected of a similar child. (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.28, p36)
There are no absolute criteria on which to rely when judging what constitutes significant harm. Consideration of the severity of ill-treatment may include the degree and the extent of physical harm, the duration and frequency of abuse and neglect, the extent of premeditation, and the presence or degree of threat, coercion, sadism and bizarre or unusual elements. Each of these elements has been associated with more severe effects on the child, and/or relatively greater difficulty in helping the child overcome the adverse impact of the maltreatment. Sometimes, a single traumatic event may constitute significant harm. (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.28, p36)
More often, significant harm is a compilation of significant events, both acute and long-standing, which interrupt, change or damage the childs physical and psychological development. Some children live in family and social circumstances where their health and development are neglected. For them, it is the corrosiveness of long-term emotional, physical or sexual abuse that causes impairment to the extent of constituting significant harm. In each case, it is necessary to consider any maltreatment alongside the familys strengths and supports. (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.28, p36)
Children who may be more vulnerable to being harmed babies and younger children disabled children children who are isolated children who are already thought of as a problem (e.g. children in care; children in secure accommodation, children with emotional/behavioural difficulties)
The under-ones are particularly vulnerable to abuse (although it should be remembered that abuse can happen at any age). The homicide rate for under-ones is nearly five times greater than the average. Babies under one have the highest rate of child protection plans.
Disabled children are: 3.8 time more likely to be neglected; 3.8 more likely to be physically abused; 3.1 times more likely to be emotionally abused. (Source: Safeguarding disabled children-Practice guidance - DCSF 2009)
Professionals must take special care to help safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people who may be living in particularly stressful circumstances. These include families: living in poverty; where there is domestic violence; where a parent has a mental illness; where a parent is misusing drugs or alcohol; where a parent has a learning disability; that face racism and other forms of social isolation; living in areas with a lot of crime, poor housing and high unemployment. (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, Ch. 9)
… vulnerability is such that they are unlikely to reach or maintain a satisfactory level of health or development, or their health and development will be significantly impaired, without the provision of services; those who are disabled. (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.25, p35)
Local authorities have a duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children in need. (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.25, p35)
Everyday needs Simple support needs Child protection needs s47 Complex support needs s17 Common Assessment Framework
Everyday needs Simple support needs Child protection needs s47 Complex support needs s17 Common Assessment Framework Helen has a two month old son.
She was in care as a child. Everyday needs Simple support needs Child protection needs s47 Complex support needs s17 Common Assessment Framework
As a child, she was sexually abused by her father and later by a care worker. Everyday needs Simple support needs Child protection needs s47 Complex support needs s17 Common Assessment Framework
She has mental health problems and learning difficulties. Everyday needs Simple support needs Child protection needs s47 Complex support needs s17 Common Assessment Framework
She is struggling to understand and meet her sons needs. Everyday needs Simple support needs Child protection needs s47 Complex support needs s17 Common Assessment Framework
Her son has a scratch and a bruise on his face and she is unable to explain this. Everyday needs Simple support needs Child protection needs s47 Complex support needs s17 Common Assessment Framework
Everyday needs Simple support needs Child protection needs s47 Complex support needs s17 Common Assessment Framework
In this establishment, the person you should talk to is: or, in their absence:
Children can be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting, by those known to them or, more rarely, by a stranger for example, via the internet. They may be abused by an adult or adults, or another child or children. (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.32, p37) NEGLECT PHYSICAL ABUSE SEXUAL ABUSE EMOTIONAL ABUSE
Physical Abuse Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces, illness in a child. (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.33, p38)
Sexual Abuse Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including assault by penetration (for example, rape or oral sex) or non- penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing, rubbing and touching outside of clothing. They may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, sexual images, watching sexual activities, encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways, grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet). Sexual abuse is not solely perpetrated by adult males. Women can also commit acts of sexual abuse, as can other children. (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.35, p38)
Neglect Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a childs basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the childs health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse. Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to: provide adequate food, clothing and shelter (including exclusion from home or abandonment); protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger; ensure adequate supervision (including the use of inadequate care-givers); or ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment. It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a childs basic emotional needs. (Source: Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.36, p39)
Emotional Abuse Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the childs emotional development. It may involve conveying to children that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person. It may include not giving the child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or making fun of what they say or how they communicate. cont. ….
Emotional Abuse (cont.) It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. These may include interactions that are beyond the childs developmental capability, as well as overprotection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child participating in normal social interaction. It may involve seeing or hearing the ill- treatment of another. It may involve serious bullying (including cyberbullying), causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger, or the exploitation or corruption of children. Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of maltreatment of a child, though it may occur alone. (Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010, 1.34, p38)
Exercise: What are the signs of: Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Emotional Abuse Neglect LIST 3/5 etc. under each category
Now see handout …..
Take time to read local C.P. procedures and guidelines. Think about what you might say/do/how you present before it happens. Try to be available to be spoken to. The child may not be ready when you are. Listen carefully to what the child says without interrupting. Keep an open mind about what you are told. Take any disclosure seriously, even if you cannot see any injury which would support the story.
Be sensitive - arrange a safe and private environment for the child to talk. Stay calm - dont show shock or horror. Be reassuring - tell the child that they were right to tell/have done nothing wrong etc. Be responsive - acknowledge how difficult it was for the child to tell, explain what needs to happen next. Be honest - dont make promises that you cant keep. Be supportive - put arrangements in place for initial support.
Dont promise confidentiality. Dont pre-judge what you are told or make assumptions. Dont delay action in response to a disclosure. Dont be afraid of being wrong, or be concerned about starting an investigation - you will be supported. At the earliest opportunity make a written record.
Questions should be: Necessary – the purpose of questions at this stage is to establish whether or not there is a concern, not to interrogate the child or conduct an investigation. Non-leading – do not use questions that suggest an answer. Open – avoid questions that invite only a yes or no answer.
Always telephone childrens services without delay if you believe that a child has suffered or is at risk of suffering harm. Parents should be told of your concern and that you intend to refer (unless informing parents would place the child at risk of harm) – see London Procedures – if in doubt, seek advice. You do not need parental agreement to make a referral in respect of a child at risk of harm.
Whenever you make a telephone referral, always back this up in writing (within 48 hours) using your local authoritys referral form.
If your referral is in respect of support for a Child-in Need where the threshold of significant harm has not been reached, a written referral can be submitted to childrens services. This is sometimes made after assessment under the Common Assessment Framework has indicated that it is required. An assessment under the Common Assessment Framework and/or referral for support for a Child in Need should only occur with parental consent.
Know your establishments child protection procedures. Know how to recognise the signs that should cause concern. Discuss your concerns about a child with your manager, a senior manager or the person with responsibility for child protection. Always make a referral to the local authority childrens services department when you have cause to believe that a child has suffered and/or may suffer harm. Seek advice from the local authority childrens services department if in any doubt about making a referral.