Presentation on theme: "Clara A.Rosalie D.Liavy D.Sabita D.. Encomiendas System 1492 English planters found Jamestown colony and complain about lack of laborers. Indentured servitude."— Presentation transcript:
Encomiendas System 1492 English planters found Jamestown colony and complain about lack of laborers. Indentured servitude begins. 1607 1619 Slaves from Africa first imported to colonies 1664 First slavery codes begin trend of making African servants slaves for life 1676 Bacon’s Rebellion of servants and slaves in Virginia 1770 British troops kill five dock workers in Boston Massacre 1773 Laborers protest royal taxation in the Boston tea Party 1775 American Revolution begins 1808 Slave importation prohibited 1834 First turnout of “mill girls” in Lowell, Mass., to protect wage cuts 1835 General strike for 10 hour day in Philadelphia 1847 New Hampshire enacts first state 10 hour day law 1848 Seneca Falls women’s rights convention 1861 Abraham Lincoln takes office as president and Civil War begins 1863 President Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation 1865 13th Amendment to the Constitution abolishes slavery Slavery Erdman Act prohibits discrimination against railroad workers because of union membership and provides for mediation of railway labor disputes 1866 National Labor Union founded 1867 Congress begins reconstruction policy in former slave states 1869 Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor and Colored National Labor Union formed 1870 15th Amendment to the Constitution adopted; states the right to vote may not be abrogated by color 1881 Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions formed 1886 American Federation of Labor founded 1890 Carpenters President P.J. McGuire and the union strike and win the eight-hour day for some 28,000 members 1892 Iron and steel workers union defeated in lockout at Homestead, Pa. 1898 Indentured Servitude until its decline because of slavery
Encomienda System Under this system, Spaniards were put in control of certain lands. In exchange for labor and loyalty, Spanish gave protection and education. This was very similar to slavery.
Indentured Servitude ●Europe wanted to colonize America but they had no one willing to do it ○They took advantage of the poor and offered a free trip and land for a few years of service ● Some indentured servants went willingly but then the English Government began shipping criminals and undesirables to the New World. ● The ones who mainly populated the New World ● Headright System: For every indentured slave and if you moved to Virginia you’d get 50 acres of land
Slavery ❏ When the indentured servants finished their service slaves became a big part of the New World. ❏ Vast majority of slaves in the South because of large plantations ❏ 2:1 slaves vs. freemen ❏ 66% slave population ❏ Due to the difficult conditions of rice cultivation, the use of slaves became more frequent. ❏ Many diseases spread like Malaria because of the muddy waters. ❏ There was a high death rate for slaves. ❏ ¾ of slaves lived on plantations ❏ slaves endured harsh punishments and some were often lynched ❏ Slavery consisted of day by day labor on the field. ❏ Some slaves tried to work for their freedom
Market Revolution (1800-1860) ●During this time the United States experienced both growth and transformation in it’s economy ●This period is also known as the first industrial revolution ●Many innovations in agriculture, transportation, and industry contributed to this economic growth ○ Cotton Gin: a device which helped with cleaning cotton especially short staple cotton which was very hard to clean but very profitable because it could be grown everywhere ○ Telegraph: wired system which allowed communication ○ Steamboat: allowed for use of rivers both ways ● Impacts: conditions for factory workers worsened. Workers endured ten hour workdays, no breaks, corporal punishment, and the windows couldn’t open.
Sharecropping and Tenant Farming & the 13th Amendment Tenant Farming: Tenant Farmers mainly paid the landlord rent for the land and a house but they were allowed to keep their crops and do what they want with it. Most would sell their crops and use the money earned to pay the rent. Sharecropping: Sharecropper didn’t own anything. They borrowed not only the house and land but also the tools, animals, supplies, and food. They often couldn’t control what crops to grow or how it would be sold. The 13th Amendment freed all slaves as of 1865. As the now freedmen looked for work and shelter. Many white farmers were kicked off their land while plantation owners could not afford to hire workers. Instead they would divide their land rented them to people. This created the Tenant system.
Lowell System v. Immigrant Workers As industrial America expanded many young women began searching for jobs; mainly in factories. Conditions in factories were horrid, especially for women. They, like men, would frequently get injured on the jobs ●Lowell System: o recruited young unmarried women o lived in clean boarding houses and dormitories o well fed and carefully supervised and good wages o had curfews and had to attend church regularly o New industries emerged and the factory workers found it difficult to maintain the high living standards and great working conditions o women complained of low wages and long hours and eventually after failed protests, left the system to pursue other occupations ●Immigrant Workers: ○large and inexpensive workforce ○due to the fact that they weren’t familiar with America they endured horrible working conditions ○wages were so low they didn’t have enough to support their families ○overworked and taken advantage of ○lived in grim conditions that endangered the health of their families
Gilded Age and Industrialization Gilded Age: (1865-1900) During this time in America there were: o tremendous economic growth o westward expansion o immigration Industrialization: (18th - 19th century) ➢ Some Americans became very rich during the Gilded Age. This time period is called the “gilded” age because gilded means covered in gold and from the outside, this time period looks great due to all of the economic progress but in reality, a vast majority of Americans dealt with poverty. Industrialization in America broke up into two parts: 1.The First Industrial Revolution (The Market Revolution) 2.The Second Industrial Revolution (After the Civil War)
Westward Expansion: Job Opportunities Ranching: This included the taking care of many animals Mining: Mined in harsh conditions often caused growth stunt and many deaths Farming: Required labor to grow crops in order to feed the growing industrial economy
Factory Life Conditions in the factories were horrendous. The windows didn’t open, there were no breaks, and working around the equipment was extremely dangerous. Factory workers also dealt with: ●Ten hour workdays ●Low wages ●Tight quarters ●Punishments (ex. whippings with cowskin) ●Terrible accidents (ex. loss of fingers or arms and sometimes death) Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire This is an example of the lack of safety regulations and conditions for factory workers. At the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory mainly women and children died after a fire broke out and they couldn’t escape due to the fact that they were locked in and the windows didn’t open. Both women and children also worked in these dangerous conditions. As people began to see the dangers that children endured in these factories they passed Child Labor Laws which prohibited the employment of children and young teenagers.
Urbanization and Tenements ●Due to the fact that the government payed more attention to the business owners, housing was not a top priority ●Small housings called tenements were built to fit the immigrants and workers where needed ●These tenements were often too cramped in space, didn't have running water, and were dangerous for the large families living in them. ●Along with labor conditions these housings were also bad for the workers and because of low wages, there wasn’t much to do about it.
Era of the Great Strikes ●Haymarket Affair of 1886 ●Great Railroad Strike of 1887 ●Homestead Strike of 1892 ●Pullman Strike of 1894 ●Anthracite Strike of 1902 ●Ludlow Strike of 1914 ●Most, if not all, strikes arose because of similar demands: o Shorter Hours o Better Conditions o Higher Wages o Union Recognitions ●Failure was inevitable because of similar forces. ○Bad Reputation ○Disorganization ○Lack of government support
Labor Unions: AFL and Knights of Labor Knights Of Labor (1869): This was the first labor union in America. o “all who toiled” which means all who worked were allowed to join o fought for shorter hours and higher wages o Used strikes and boycotts to pressure employers into changing o Believed that if the government was involved and on their side they would be able to fix anything o came to an end because they were unorganized American Federation of Labor (1886): o was also a labor union but unlike the the Knights of Labor they only allowed skilled workers to join o they didn’t represent blacks or women o wanted to achieve shorter hours and higher wages o also did strikes to try and get the support of others and bring change