Goals for the Reformation Summarize the factors that encouraged the protestant reformation. Analyze martin luther’s role in shaping the protestant reformation. Explain the teachings and impact of john calvin. Describe the new ideas that protestant sects embraced. Understand why England formed a new church Analyze how the catholic church reformed itself. Explain why many groups faced persecution during the reformation.
Causes SocialPoliticalEconomicReligious Value humanism and secularism, which leads to people questioning the Church Powerful monarchs challenged the Church as the supreme power in Europe European princes and kings were jealous of Church's wealth Some Church leaders had become worldly and corrupt Printing press helped spread ideas/critics of the Church Many leaders view the Pope as foreign and challenge his authority Merchants and others resented paying a tax to the Church Many people saw indulgences as unacceptable
Early Reformers John Wycliffe (1324-1384) –Church should give up earthly possessions –People should be able to interpret and read the Bible on their own. –Views were unpopular - Removed from teaching position
Early Reformers Cont… Jan Hus (1369-1415) –He wanted Bishops elected and not appointed by Pope. –Preached against immortality and worldliness of Catholic Church –Excommunicated by Pope Gregory XII – burned at the steak
Early Reformers Cont… Erasmus (1466-1536) –“ Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched. ” –Erasmus remained committed to reforming the Church from within. –He also held to Catholic doctrines such as that of free will. Which some Protestant Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of predestination.
Important Developments that aid the process to Reformation! The Printing Press!!!! –Books are now available to the masses not just the rich! (Faster production=cheaper books) –People have access to books whenever they want them. How does this relate to the Reformation? Explain your answer? Printing Press = 3,600 pages per workday Hand Printing = 40 pages per workday
Causes of the reformation 1) renaissance – emphasis on the secular (non spiritual) and the individual challenged church authority. 2) printing press – spread the ideas of the renaissance 3) rulers resented the popes’ attempt to control them. 4) northern merchants did not want to pay church taxes to rome.
Problems within the church Critics of the church claimed that its leaders were corrupt. No respect for priests, monks, and pope Popes during renaissance – patronized the arts, spent extravagantly on personal pleasure and fought wars. Some popes admitted to having several children, many priests were not well educated, some were married- gambled-or drank too much. “if the truth be confessed, the luxury and pomp of our courts is too great.” –Pope pius II.
What happens to spark the Reformation? Pope Leo X needs money to build St. Peter ’ s Basilica…so he sells indulgences! –Purgatory – work off sins –Indulgences- were pardons issued by the pope that people could buy to reduce a soul ’ s time in purgatory = (People could buy forgiveness)
Historical Connections The school attempted to raise money by selling points to students Students who performed poorly were told they could still earn high grades by buying points Students who honored the academic process or couldn’t afford to buy points were troubled by the policy, believing it was wrong or unfair The church attempted to increase its financial holdings by selling indulgences Catholics who sinned believed they could avoid doing good deeds to make up for their sins by buying indulgences Catholics who honored Church teachings or couldn’t afford to buy indulgences were troubled by the practice believing it was unfair
Language Barriers Most uneducated people didn ’ t understand Latin, but knew the local common language or “ vernacular ”. –Almost all Bibles were written in LATIN before the Reformation. It was the job of the church clergy to translate the Bible to lay people.
Martin Luther Luther was a German monk and professor of theology (religion) at the University of Wittenberg. One of the many leaders of the Protestant Reformation. –Luther objected to a saying attributed to Johann Tetzel that "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs."
Luther ’ s 95 Theses In 1517, the 95 Theses were nailed to a church door. They were written in Latin. (Like a bulletin board) –Luther ’ s intention: NOT TO BREAK WITH CHURCH, BUT REFORM IT! –Criticized: 1.Indulgences 2.Power of Pope 3.Wealth of Church Invited people to come debate him Some took them off, some made copies Everyone eventually knew about this (PRINTING PRESS)
Reformation! Luther’s actions started the reformation – a movement of religious reform. –Resulted in the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the pope’s authority. Luther’s main ideas: –People could win salvation only by faith in god’s gift of forgiveness. (church taught that faith and “good works” were needed for salvation. –All church teachings should be clearly based on the words of the bible. The pope and church traditions were false authorities. –All people with faith were equal. Therefore, people did not need priests to interpret the bible for them.
Excommunication In 1520 Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther. –Excommunication- expelled him from the church. –Holy Roman Emperor Charles V passed measures to suppress Luther ’ s writings. –Lutheran princes in Germany issued a protestatio or protest. Hence the term Protestant!
Response to Luther After the trial, emperor Charles v issued an imperial order, the edicts of worms. –Declared luther an outlaw and a heretic. –Nobody was suppose to give luther food or shelter, his books were burned. –The state that luther lived disobeyed these orders.
Peace of Augsburg Charles V tried to persuade German princes to convert back to the Holy Roman Church Several little wars occurred In 1555 the treaty, Peace of Augsburg, was signed stating that a prince had the right to choose what religion their kingdom would follow Why do you think Charles V could not force the Protestant princes back into the Catholic Church? Luther's ideas were too strong The abuses in the Catholic Church caused people to lose faith
Other Reformations Ulrich Zwingli in Switzerland –Theocracy A government in which church and state are joined and in which officials are considered to be divinely inspired. Luther did not support him (Tampering with God) John Calvin in Switzerland –Predestination God knows who will be saved, even before people are born, and therefore guides the lives of those destined fore salvation. John Knox in Scotland –Laid grounds for Presbyterian Church