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Larry Oliver FAA Flight Standards (AFS-430) Advanced Management Technology, Inc. Federal Aviation Administration Everything You Wanted to Know About GPS.

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Presentation on theme: "Larry Oliver FAA Flight Standards (AFS-430) Advanced Management Technology, Inc. Federal Aviation Administration Everything You Wanted to Know About GPS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Larry Oliver FAA Flight Standards (AFS-430) Advanced Management Technology, Inc. Federal Aviation Administration Everything You Wanted to Know About GPS and WAAS

2 Larry Oliver FAA Flight Standards (AFS-430) Advanced Management Technology, Inc. Federal Aviation Administration Everything You Wanted to Know About GPS and WAAS (Unless you are an engineer!)

3 GPS/WAAS 3 Federal Aviation Administration Agenda Basics of GPS –Recent change to AIM, AC –RNAV, RNP or not? WAAS –How it works –What can it do for me? –Approaches (LPV, LNAV/VNAV) –SIDs, STARs, Q-Routes, and T-Routes What’s next? –Performance-based National Airspace System Q&A

4 GPS/WAAS 4 Federal Aviation Administration The Usual Caveats Valid for navigation in the US National Airspace System Does not invalidate or change ANYTHING required by your POI or in your OpSpec Does not supersede ANYTHING in your POH/AFM Some equipment requires specific operational mitigations

5 GPS/WAAS 5 Federal Aviation Administration FAA Mission Provide the safest, most efficient aerospace system in the world Navigation Services goal Provide safe, cost effective navigation services to meet operational needs of the aviation customer

6 GPS/WAAS 6 Federal Aviation Administration The National Airspace System (NAS) 18,000 airports 750 control facilities 4,000 commercial flights per day 100,000 commercial passengers per day Plus thousands of Part 91 operations every day

7 GPS/WAAS 7 Federal Aviation Administration GPS Basics Nominal 24 GPS satellites in low earth orbit Each satellite transmits data message Airborne receiver processes message to determine position/velocity/time Navigation function; either in FMS or in GPS (stand-alone) Linear, not angular

8 GPS/WAAS 8 Federal Aviation Administration Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) Calculates your position vs. satellites to determine if sufficient for navigation Considers known satellite outages RAIM check for destination and alternate Required for GPS

9 GPS/WAAS 9 Federal Aviation Administration

10 GPS/WAAS 10 Federal Aviation Administration NOTAMS GPS outages –Usually military Satellite outages –Used in RAIM prediction

11 GPS/WAAS 11 Federal Aviation Administration With Approved GPS, I can: File RNAV Fly an LNAV approach Fly an RNP/RNAV approach Fly a GPS approach …but I can’t file a GPS alternate

12 GPS/WAAS 12 Federal Aviation Administration An RNAV Aircraft Can Substitute RNAV for VOR, ADF or DME that is out of service Use as alternative means of navigation guidance (no requirement to monitor VOR, etc.) Extracted from AIM, Section 1-2-3, “Use of RNAV Equipment on Conventional Procedures and Routes” –Define “Conventional”

13 GPS/WAAS 13 Federal Aviation Administration “Conventional” Is Not RNAV Older TSOC-129 boxes –Lack sufficient database memory –May lack ability to provide path guidance (path terminators) –Suitable for most operations, but not RNAV/RNP No restrictions on newer units Information on specific units under “Policies and Guidance” at: afs400/afs410

14 GPS/WAAS 14 Federal Aviation Administration Fly-By and Fly-Over Waypoints

15 GPS/WAAS 15 Federal Aviation Administration Fly-By or Fly-Over – Yes, It Is Important

16 GPS/WAAS 16 Federal Aviation Administration Can I Fly An RNAV Procedure? GNS 430 GNS 530 GNS/CNX 480* Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Unit RNAV Q/T Routes (Terminal) RNAV 1 (ER) RNAV 2 Substitution *Needs T2 letter of acceptance Answer is in AC A and online, updated table

17 GPS/WAAS 17 Federal Aviation Administration Regardless Of The System, Remember That “Pilots may not substitute for the navigational aid providing lateral guidance for the final approach.” (AIM, pg 1-2-6)

18 GPS/WAAS 18 Federal Aviation Administration Typical Conventional Arrival

19 GPS/WAAS 19 Federal Aviation Administration RNAV Arrival Not a conventional arrival –Computer generated waypoints –Mix of fly-over and fly-by

20 GPS/WAAS 20 Federal Aviation Administration

21 GPS/WAAS 21 Federal Aviation Administration WAAS System

22 GPS/WAAS 22 Federal Aviation Administration How WAAS Works

23 GPS/WAAS 23 Federal Aviation Administration WAAS Capabilities Why WAAS? –Enhances en-route navigation performance over GPS alone –Enhances non-precision approach capability over GPS alone –Allows WAAS equipped users to fly more than 2,891 published LNAV/VNAV procedures to minimums as low as 300 feet –Allows WAAS equipped users to fly new LPV procedures -Can use GPS for an alternate (LNAV only) Better than 99.99% availability of system –200’ minimum WAAS specific approaches (LPV) –846 LPV approaches published, with 300 new expected each year

24 GPS/WAAS 24 Federal Aviation Administration With WAAS, I can: Skip the RAIM check! Fly an LNAV/VNAV approach Fly an LPV approach Use GPS/WAAS entirely …and I can file a GPS alternate –But using the LNAV minima line

25 GPS/WAAS 25 Federal Aviation Administration WAAS TSO-C146 “Stand-Alone Airborne Nav Using GPS Augmented by WAAS) TSO-C145 “Airborne Nav Sensors Using GPS Augmented by WAAS”

26 GPS/WAAS 26 Federal Aviation Administration Instrument Approach Update NDBs being reduced No new funding for ILS Expansion of LPVs LPV minimums of 200’

27 GPS/WAAS 27 Federal Aviation Administration Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) Flies like an ILS (but better!) Minimums down to 200’ Why isn’t it a precision approach? What about the pilot test standards?

28 GPS/WAAS 28 Federal Aviation Administration Charting with LPV Minimum Line LPV Minimum Line WAAS Channel Number WAAS Approach ID: W24A W: WAAS 24: Runway 24 A: 1 st WAAS Approach To Rwy 24 Temperature Restriction Does Not Apply to WAAS Equipment

29 GPS/WAAS 29 Federal Aviation Administration LPV Production Schedule Currently, 846 LPV approaches Adding 300 per year On the web: gps.faa.gov –Click button: GPS/WAAS

30 GPS/WAAS 30 Federal Aviation Administration Standard Instrument Departure

31 GPS/WAAS 31 Federal Aviation Administration Here is what’s coming!

32 GPS/WAAS 32 Federal Aviation Administration Q-Routes

33 GPS/WAAS 33 Federal Aviation Administration T-Routes

34 GPS/WAAS 34 Federal Aviation Administration Coming Soon… LP approaches Helo point in space approaches

35 GPS/WAAS 35 Federal Aviation Administration Why All the Changes? Ask anyone who regularly flies into O’Hare, JFK, ATL –Capacity –Safety –Oh, and money! Seen any new airports under construction? Heard about the anticipated number of VLJs?

36 GPS/WAAS 36 Federal Aviation Administration Nav Aid Cost VOR –Install = $250,000 –20-year life cycle cost = $1,100,000 ILS –Install = $1,200,000 –20-year life cycle cost = $2,700,000 Neither figure considers cost of real estate

37 GPS/WAAS 37 Federal Aviation Administration Where is this leading? GPS is biggest change to hit aviation since the jet engine! 2007 – decision for drawdown of VORs My personal guess -reduce by 60% over 10 years NDBs are already being divested

38 GPS/WAAS 38 Federal Aviation Administration Streamlined Departures Vector-Free Arrivals All-Weather Approaches Streamlined Departures Efficient, Flexible Routing Vector-Free Arrivals All-Weather Approaches Performance-Based Navigation Complete transition by 2025 Consistent with ICAO global vision Operational capability based on GPS and augmentations Enhance safety, capacity, efficiency Reduce costs

39 GPS/WAAS 39 Federal Aviation Administration Required Navigational Performance (RNP) Major change in technical approach – not sensor specific Complete “system” will be RNP certified –Aircraft, nav system, autopilot to provide containment and alerting RNP 2 miles en route, 1 mile terminal, 0.3 for approach

40 GPS/WAAS 40 Federal Aviation Administration RNP 0.3 DME/DME NA

41 GPS/WAAS 41 Federal Aviation Administration Larry’s Forecast Satellite-based navigation More takeoff-direct routing ILS-like accuracy en route throughout the NAS Skeleton framework of VORs as mitigation for possible GPS jamming/obstruction –Until we work out a jam-proof system

42 GPS/WAAS 42 Federal Aviation Administration In The Future, You Will: Have to intimately understand the workings of your GPS receiver (to fly IFR) –Incredibly capable, but it’s a computer! Spend more time as a “systems operator” You will either love it, or hate it, but it’s here to stay!

43 GPS/WAAS 43 Federal Aviation Administration Three Major FAA Planning Documents Operational Evolution Plan –www.faa.gov/programs/OEPwww.faa.gov/programs/OEP Roadmap for Performance Based Navigation –www.faa.gov/ats/rnpwww.faa.gov/ats/rnp Next Generation Air Transport System

44 GPS/WAAS 44 Federal Aviation Administration The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Plan Defines A System That Can Meet Demands For The 21 st Century Trajectory-Based Operations Performance-Based Operations and Services Precision Navigation Weather Integration Network-Centric Information Sharing Surveillance Services Equivalent Visual Operations Super Density Operations Layered, Adaptive Security Capabilities

45 GPS/WAAS 45 Federal Aviation Administration Navigation Evolution Customer Council (NECC) Council made up of government and industry members Created by Director of Navigation Services to: –Implement the navigation evolution roadmap –Adjudication of roadmap comments –Develop roadmap updates –Liaison between policy-makers and the aviation community

46 GPS/WAAS 46 Federal Aviation Administration Contact me at: (202)

47 GPS/WAAS 47 Federal Aviation Administration GPS Inflight Problem Solving Does the Damn Thing Work? Don't Mess with It?Should You Mess with It? You Idiot!!! You Poor Idiot!!! Trash It? Can You Blame Someone Else? NO PROBLEM Does Anyone Else Know How to Use It? Will You Catch Hell? Hide It? YES NO YES

48 GPS/WAAS 48 Federal Aviation Administration


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