2Everything You Wanted to Know About GPS and WAAS (Unless you are an engineer!)
3Agenda Basics of GPS WAAS What’s next? Q&A Recent change to AIM, ACRNAV, RNP or not?WAASHow it worksWhat can it do for me?Approaches (LPV, LNAV/VNAV)SIDs, STARs, Q-Routes, and T-RoutesWhat’s next?Performance-based National Airspace SystemQ&A
4The Usual CaveatsValid for navigation in the US National Airspace SystemDoes not invalidate or change ANYTHING required by your POI or in your OpSpecDoes not supersede ANYTHING in your POH/AFMSome equipment requires specific operational mitigations
5FAA Mission Navigation Services goal Provide the safest, most efficient aerospace system in the worldNavigation Services goalProvide safe, cost effective navigation services to meet operational needs of the aviation customer
6The National Airspace System (NAS) 18,000 airports750 control facilities4,000 commercial flights per day100,000 commercial passengers per dayPlus thousands of Part 91 operations every day
7GPS Basics Nominal 24 GPS satellites in low earth orbit Each satellite transmits data messageAirborne receiver processes message to determine position/velocity/timeNavigation function; either in FMS or in GPS (stand-alone)Linear, not angular
8Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) Calculates your position vs. satellites to determine if sufficient for navigationConsiders known satellite outagesRAIM check for destination and alternateRequired for GPS
10NOTAMS GPS outages Satellite outages Usually military Used in RAIM prediction
11With Approved GPS, I can: File RNAVFly an LNAV approachFly an RNP/RNAV approachFly a GPS approach…but I can’t file a GPS alternate
12An RNAV Aircraft CanSubstitute RNAV for VOR, ADF or DME that is out of serviceUse as alternative means of navigation guidance (no requirement to monitor VOR, etc.)Extracted from AIM, Section 1-2-3, “Use of RNAV Equipment on Conventional Procedures and Routes”Define “Conventional”
13“Conventional” Is Not RNAV Older TSOC-129 boxesLack sufficient database memoryMay lack ability to provide path guidance (path terminators)Suitable for most operations, but not RNAV/RNPNo restrictions on newer unitsInformation on specific units under “Policies and Guidance” at: afs400/afs410
16Can I Fly An RNAV Procedure? Answer is in AC A and online, updated tableRNAVQ/T Routes(Terminal)RNAV 1(ER)RNAV 2UnitSubstitutionGNS 430GNS 530GNS/CNX 480*YesNoYesNoYesNoYes*Needs T2 letter of acceptance
17Regardless Of The System, Remember That “Pilots may not substitute for the navigational aid providing lateral guidance for the final approach.” (AIM, pg 1-2-6)
23WAAS Capabilities Why WAAS? Better than 99.99% availability of system Enhances en-route navigation performance over GPS aloneEnhances non-precision approach capability over GPS aloneAllows WAAS equipped users to fly more than 2,891 published LNAV/VNAV procedures to minimums as low as 300 feetAllows WAAS equipped users to fly new LPV proceduresCan use GPS for an alternate (LNAV only)Better than 99.99% availability of system200’ minimum WAAS specific approaches (LPV)846 LPV approaches published, with 300 new expected each year
24With WAAS, I can: Skip the RAIM check! Fly an LNAV/VNAV approach Fly an LPV approachUse GPS/WAAS entirely…and I can file a GPS alternateBut using the LNAV minima line
25WAAS TSO-C146 “Stand-Alone Airborne Nav Using GPS Augmented by WAAS) TSO-C145 “Airborne Nav Sensors Using GPS Augmented by WAAS”
26Instrument Approach Update NDBs being reducedNo new funding for ILSExpansion of LPVsLPV minimums of 200’
27Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) Flies like an ILS (but better!)Minimums down to 200’Why isn’t it a precision approach?What about the pilot test standards?
28Charting with LPV Minimum Line WAAS Channel NumberWAAS Approach ID: W24AW: WAAS24: Runway 24A: 1st WAAS ApproachTo Rwy 24Temperature RestrictionDoes Not Apply to WAASEquipmentLPV Minimum Line
29LPV Production Schedule Currently, 846 LPV approachesAdding 300 per yearOn the web: gps.faa.govClick button: GPS/WAAS
34Coming Soon…LP approachesHelo point in space approaches
35Why All the Changes?Ask anyone who regularly flies into O’Hare, JFK, ATLCapacitySafetyOh, and money!Seen any new airports under construction?Heard about the anticipated number of VLJs?
36Nav Aid Cost VOR ILS Neither figure considers cost of real estate Install = $250,00020-year life cycle cost = $1,100,000ILSInstall = $1,200,00020-year life cycle cost = $2,700,000Neither figure considers cost of real estate
37Where is this leading?GPS is biggest change to hit aviation since the jet engine!2007 – decision for drawdown of VORsMy personal guess -reduce by 60% over 10 yearsNDBs are already being divested
38Performance-Based Navigation Complete transition by 2025Consistent with ICAO global visionOperational capability based on GPS and augmentationsEnhance safety, capacity, efficiencyReduce costsStreamlinedDeparturesVector-FreeArrivalsAllWeatherApproachesEfficient, Flexible RoutingPerformance-based navigation is an end-to-end system of concepts and applications based on performance standards without dependence upon specific technologies or equipmentIt fully utilizes the capabilities of all aircraft navigation equipment to operate safely and efficiently in conjunction with external signals provided by ground or space based systemsFAA approved GPS for operational use over 10 years ago. GPS and its augmentations are key enabling technologies toward implementation of performance based services. They provide this capability in the most cost-effective manner considering the unaffordability of the aging ground based infrastructureGPS does not have the integrity, availability, or accuracy required for precision approaches. This is the main reason FAA has spent over $1B delivering WAAS service and $150M in the development of LAAS.FAA continues to provide support to DoD to ensure the long-term interests of civil & military aviation are addressed. FAA participates on the acquisition team for the GPS-III Program as evaluators and technical advisorsThe FAA continues to support development of ground-based augmentation (GBAS) using the Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS). The LAAS program continues to work with DoD’s joint precision approach and landing system (JPALS) program to ensure system interoperability and sharing of lessons learned.
39Required Navigational Performance (RNP) Major change in technical approach – not sensor specificComplete “system” will be RNP certifiedAircraft, nav system, autopilot to provide containment and alertingRNP 2 miles en route, 1 mile terminal, 0.3 for approach
41Larry’s Forecast Satellite-based navigation More takeoff-direct routingILS-like accuracy en route throughout the NASSkeleton framework of VORs as mitigation for possible GPS jamming/obstructionUntil we work out a jam-proof system
42In The Future, You Will:Have to intimately understand the workings of your GPS receiver (to fly IFR)Incredibly capable, but it’s a computer!Spend more time as a “systems operator”You will either love it, or hate it, but it’s here to stay!
43Three Major FAA Planning Documents Operational Evolution PlanRoadmap for Performance Based NavigationNext Generation Air Transport System
44The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Plan Defines A System That Can Meet Demands For The 21st CenturyTrajectory-Based OperationsPerformance-BasedOperations and ServicesPrecision NavigationWeather IntegrationNetwork-CentricInformation SharingSurveillance ServicesEquivalent Visual OperationsSuper Density OperationsLayered, Adaptive SecurityCapabilitiesThe 108th Congress passed Vision 100 – Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act (PL ). This created a unique coalition of public and private partnerships (Joint Program Development Office (JPDO)). The JPDO is the organization responsible for the development of NextGenNextGen is based on nine core capabilities. Two capabilities that are important to this group are Precision Navigation (GPS and augmentations) and Surveillance Services (ADS-B)The JPDO is evaluating plans to modernize GPS to ensure there is consistency with NextGen.The FAA has worked collaboratively with DoD to define the aviation needs for GPS-III.It is understood that any additional requirements that are unique to the civil community beyond the current baseline will be funded by the civil community. L5 is included in the current baseline.
45Navigation Evolution Customer Council (NECC) Council made up of government and industry membersCreated by Director of Navigation Services to:Implement the navigation evolution roadmapAdjudication of roadmap commentsDevelop roadmap updatesLiaison between policy-makers and the aviation community
47GPS Inflight Problem Solving YESNODoes the Damn Thing Work?YESDon't Mess with It?You Idiot!!!Should You Mess with It?NONODoes Anyone ElseKnow How to Use It?Hide It?YESYou PoorIdiot!!!YESWill You Catch Hell?NONOCan You BlameSomeone Else?Trash It?YESNOPROBLEM