James Monroe Era of Good Feeling Took a goodwill tour into New England
Nationalist Feelings Washington Irving and James Fennimore Cooper Washington D.C. rebuilt Stephen Decatur’s famous quote:" Our country, right or wrong”
Nationalist Legislation Bank of the United States-bank’s charter had expired in 1811 Panic of 1819-major cause over speculation in land prices—in 1818 National Bank decides to force state bank to redeem paper money in specie—a money panic starts Tariff of 1816-first in U. S. history designed for protection—Britain had been dumping textiles Internal Improvements American System—Henry Clay
Emergence of Factories Samuel Slater helped to establish the first U.S. factory in 1791 The War of 1812 stimulated domestic manufacturing In the 1820’s New England emerged as the leading manufacturing center because: 1. It replaced mercantilist activities 2. Waterpower and labor
Francis Cabot Lowell The Lowell System – using water power to run power looms—they process cotton cloth at a faster rate Sets up what becomes known as the Lowell factory
Lowell Factory Very different Used New England Farms Girls as an untapped labor resource Provided housing to keep them safe and healthy
Lowell Mill Girls Provided for education--lectures
The Lowell Offering, 1840-1845, was written and published by working women
Lowell Girls go on Strike One of the first strikes of cotton-factory operatives that over took place in this country—in 1836– cut in wages About fifteen hundred girls turned out No flags Did sing
Strike Song “Oh isn’t it a pity, such a pretty girl as I Should be sent to the factory to pine away and die Oh! I cannot be a slave, I will not be a slave, For I’m so fond of liberty That I cannot be a slave.”
In February 1834, the Board of Directors of Lowell's textile mills requested the managers or agents to impose a 15% reduction in wages, to go into effect on March 1. After a series of meetings, the female textile workers organized a "turn- out" or strike. The women involved in "turn-out" immediately withdrew their savings causing "a run" on two local banks- but the strike failed and they returned to work at the reduced rates—In 1836—they were more successful—rent hikes— community support.
Industry Middle States—iron manufacturing Midwest Agriculture was aided by: McCormick’s horse-drawn reaper in the 1830’s and John Deere’s steel plow in the 1840’s South –cotton because of Eli Whitney’s cotton gin in 1790’s –interchangeable parts
Westward Movement after 1815 First hunters-traders-explorers after that pioneer farmers As farmers took over that frontier will vanish The largest Westward surge up to this time which is after the War of 1812 was called the Great Migration
Causes Pacification of the Indians Exhaustion of soil in the East Land Act of 1800-Harrison Land Act- Northwest Territory Improvements in transportation Opportunity to escape the East
Transportation Revolution Roads—in 1792 first toll road form Philadelphia to Lancaster, PA—60 miles of hard-packed surface of crushed road—entirely built for private profit In 1818—the National Road ( also known as Cumberland Road) was constructed from Cumberland Maryland to Wheeling Virginia—by 1850—it reach Vandalia in the Great State of Illinois-700 miles Turnpikes lowered cost and time of transporting goods and people
ERIE CANAL Started in 1817 by the state of New York It was a man made waterway between Hudson River and Lake Erie Completed in 1825—connected the Great Lakes and Atlantic Ocean by a more direct route than the Mississippi River It was considered an engineering marvel Canal and steamboats brought East and West together for the first time
Railroads Profound effect on life styles if the American people First major railroad was the Baltimore and Ohio—financed by Baltimore business men in 1828 By 1860, U.S. had 30,000 miles of track Provided an all weather route for passengers and freight
Agreements with Britain and Spain Negotiations with Britain Commercial agreement in 1815-no West Indies Rush Bagot 1818-The Rush-Bagot Agreement between Great Britain and the United States demilitarized the Great Lakes and defined the border between the US and Canada at the 49th parallel. Negotiated by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, the Rush-Bagot Agreement eliminated some of the most contentious issues between the United States and Great Britain. Convention of 1818-set boundary along 49 th parallel –Oregon Treaty
Agreements with Spain Annexation of Florida U. S. acquires Florida in four separate annexations: 1. Yazoo Strip conceded in Pinckney’s Treaty 2. West Florida taken in 1810—occupation of West Florida completed in 1813 when Gen. Wilkinson took Mobile 1817—Seminole War—Jackson took East Florida and Pensacola—white settlers had attacked Indians and the Seminoles retaliated-there was a presence of runaway slaves now know as Black Seminoles—Jackson's campaign destroyed the Black Seminoles. Adams-Onis Treaty
The Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain was negotiated by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and the Spanish Minister to the United States, Don Luis de Onís, and signed in February 1819. The principal elements in the treaty were the acquisition of Florida by the United States and the establishment of a boundary line between Spanish territory and the United States. U. S. gave up any claim to Texas and would pay up to five million dollars claim of U. S citizens against the Spanish Government.
Prominent family connections related to Randolph’s
John Marshall Born in a log cabin in Virginia Served in the Revolutionary War Declined positions in Washington’s Cabinet Wanted to be in the House of Representatives Served as Secretary of State under Adams Appointed Chief Justice in 1801
More Marshall Served as chief justice for 34 years Major Goals of Marshall a. Increase the powers of the national government b. diminish the powers of the states c. perpetuate the Federalist principles of centralization
Major Cases Marbury v Madison McCulloch v Maryland-bank stands-constitutional and free from taxation by the state Dartmouth College Case-states can’t alter charters-A charter is a contract Gibbons v Ogden- gave the national government undisputed control over interstate commerce Fletcher v Peck-contracts must be upheld-GA Cherokee Nation v Georgia- Indians had right to their land
Legacy of Marshall Established the primacy of federal government over states in control of economy Opened the way for an increased federal role in promoting economic growth Affirmed protection for corporations and other private economic institutions form local governmental interference.
The Struggle for Missouri In 1819-there were eleven slave states and eleven free states in the senate 105 to 81 in House In 1819 Missouri wants to enter the Union as a slave state Missouri is the first part of the Louisiana purchase to apply for statehood This would give the South an edge in the Senate
Tallmadge Amendment Rep James Tallmadge from New York furthered the debate by proposing an amendment to the Missouri statehood bill which would gradually stop slavery in Missouri 1.Prohibit further introduction of slavery in Missouri 2.Require that children of slaves be emancipated at age 25 Amendment was defeated
Henry Clay’s Proposal Months of heated debate followed Then Maine applied for statehood as a free state Clay comes up with a proposal 1.Missouri admitted as a slave state 2.Maine would come in as a free state and everything north of 36 30’would be free
Monroe Doctrine Background—British Foreign Minster George Canning suggested to the United States that both countries work together to prevent Spain from regaining control of the former colonies U. S. was alarmed by Russian expansion from the Alaskan settlements to the west coast of North America
Monroe Doctrine Monroe asked both Madison and Jefferson for advice They thought that a joint venture would be a good idea.
John Quincy Adams John Quincy Adams convinced Monroe to refuse any joint venture—it would restrict U. S. opportunity for further expansion in the hemisphere On this recommendation—Monroe included a statement of independence in his address to congress
The Monroe Doctrine Four Main Ideas 1.American continents were not open to any further colonization 2.U. S. would oppose any attempt to extend European political systems to Americas 3.U. S. would not interfere with existing colonies in America 4.U. S. would not meddle in the internal affairs of any European country but would oppose any transfer of existing colonies in the American from one European Country to another
European Reaction Most Europeans believed that is was arrogant, belligerent and hostile United States would not be able to back up its words Nevertheless, The United States is barely 45 years old and has a population of about 10 million— challenged the European powers with a clear statement in defense of international freedom and liberal institutions The doctrine will become more significant later– it will first be used in the 1840’s
Corrupt Bargain Background By 1824 the Era of Good Feeling is over Candidates usually chosen by party caucus-convention system starts to replace it states doing away with property qualifications for voting
Candidates in 1824 Henry Clay [KY] John Quincy Adams [MA] William H. Crawford [GA]
More Corrupt Bargain Jackson gets the popular vote but not the majority in the electoral college Goes to the House of Reps Clay uses his influence to elect Adams Four days later – Clay is appointed Sec of State
Diary Since my removal to the Presidential mansion, I rise about five; read two chapters of Scott's Bible and Commentary, and the corresponding Commentary of Hewlett; then the morning newspapers, and public papers from the several departments; write seldom and not enough; breakfast an hour, from nine to ten; then have a succession of visitors, upon business, in search of place, solicitors for donations, or from mere curiosity, from eleven till between four and five o'clock. The heads of department of course occupy much of this time. Between four and six I take a walk of three or four miles. Dine from about half past five to seven, and from dark till about eleven I generally pass the evening in my chamber, signing land grants or blank patents, in the interval of which, for the last ten days I have brought up three months of arrears in my diary index. About eleven I retire to bed. My evenings are not so free from interruption as I hoped and expected they would be.
John Quincy Adams as President Program: 1. Internal Improvements 2. Aid to manufacturing 3. Dept of Interior 4. National University 5. Just Treatment of Indians 6. Astronomical Observations His program does not pass
More Adams Panama Congress The Tariff Issue—new tariff passed in 1824 South was unhappy because they saw it as an instrument for increasing Northern profit Tariff of 1828