3James Monroe Era of Good Feeling Took a goodwill tour into New England
4Nationalist Feelings Washington Irving and James Fennimore Cooper Washington D.C. rebuiltStephen Decatur’s famous quote:" Our country, right or wrong”
5Nationalist Legislation Bank of the United States-bank’s charter had expired in 1811Panic of 1819-major cause over speculation in land prices—in 1818 National Bank decides to force state bank to redeem paper money in specie—a money panic startsTariff of 1816-first in U. S. history designed for protection—Britain had been dumping textilesInternal ImprovementsAmerican System—Henry Clay
6Emergence of Factories Samuel Slater helped to establish the first U.S. factory in 1791The War of 1812 stimulated domestic manufacturingIn the 1820’s New England emerged as the leading manufacturing center because:1. It replaced mercantilist activities2. Waterpower and labor
9Francis Cabot LowellThe Lowell System – using water power to run power looms—they process cotton cloth at a faster rateSets up what becomes known as the Lowell factory
10Lowell Factory Very different Used New England Farms Girls as an untapped labor resourceProvided housing to keep them safe and healthy
11Lowell Mill GirlsProvided for education--lectures
12The Lowell Offering, 1840-1845, was written and published by working women
13Lowell Girls go on Strike One of the first strikes of cotton-factory operatives that over took place in this country—in 1836– cut in wagesAbout fifteen hundred girls turned outNo flagsDid sing
14Strike Song “Oh isn’t it a pity, such a pretty girl as I Should be sent to the factory to pine away and dieOh! I cannot be a slave,I will not be a slave,For I’m so fond of libertyThat I cannot be a slave.”
15In February 1834, the Board of Directors of Lowell's textile mills requested the managers or agents to impose a 15% reduction in wages, to go into effect on March 1. After a series of meetings, the female textile workers organized a "turn-out" or strike. The women involved in "turn-out" immediately withdrew their savings causing "a run" on two local banks-but the strike failed and they returned to work at the reduced rates—In 1836—they were more successful—rent hikes—community support.
16Industry Middle States—iron manufacturing Midwest Agriculture was aided by:McCormick’s horse-drawn reaper in the 1830’s and John Deere’s steel plow in the 1840’sSouth –cotton because of Eli Whitney’s cotton gin in 1790’s –interchangeable parts
17Westward Movement after 1815 First hunters-traders-explorers after that pioneer farmersAs farmers took over that frontier will vanishThe largest Westward surge up to this time which is after the War of 1812 was called the Great Migration
18Causes Pacification of the Indians Exhaustion of soil in the East Land Act of 1800-Harrison Land Act-Northwest TerritoryImprovements in transportationOpportunity to escape the East
20Transportation Revolution Roads—in 1792 first toll road form Philadelphia to Lancaster, PA—60 miles of hard-packed surface of crushed road—entirely built for private profitIn 1818—the National Road ( also known as Cumberland Road) was constructed from Cumberland Maryland to Wheeling Virginia—by 1850—it reach Vandalia in the Great State of Illinois-700 milesTurnpikes lowered cost and time of transporting goods and people
21ERIE CANAL Started in 1817 by the state of New York It was a man made waterway between Hudson River and Lake ErieCompleted in 1825—connected the Great Lakes and Atlantic Ocean by a more direct route than the Mississippi RiverIt was considered an engineering marvelCanal and steamboats brought East and West together for the first time
26Railroads Profound effect on life styles if the American people First major railroad was the Baltimore and Ohio—financed by Baltimore business men in 1828By 1860, U.S. had 30,000 miles of trackProvided an all weather route for passengers and freight
27Agreements with Britain and Spain Negotiations with BritainCommercial agreement in 1815-no West IndiesRush Bagot 1818-The Rush-Bagot Agreement between Great Britain and the United States demilitarized the Great Lakes and defined the border between the US and Canada at the 49th parallel. Negotiated by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, the Rush-Bagot Agreement eliminated some of the most contentious issues between the United States and Great Britain.Convention of 1818-set boundary along 49th parallel –Oregon Treaty
28Agreements with Spain Annexation of Florida U. S. acquires Florida in four separate annexations: 1. Yazoo Strip conceded in Pinckney’s Treaty2. West Florida taken in 1810—occupation of West Florida completed in 1813 when Gen. Wilkinson took Mobile1817—Seminole War—Jackson took East Florida and Pensacola—white settlers had attacked Indians and the Seminoles retaliated-there was a presence of runaway slaves now know as Black Seminoles—Jackson's campaign destroyed the Black Seminoles.Adams-Onis Treaty
29The Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain was negotiated by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and the Spanish Minister to the United States, Don Luis de Onís, and signed in February The principal elements in the treaty were the acquisition of Florida by the United States and the establishment of a boundary line between Spanish territory and the United States. U. S. gave up any claim to Texas and would pay up to five million dollars claim of U. S citizens against the Spanish Government.
31Prominent family connections related to Randolph’s
32John Marshall Born in a log cabin in Virginia Served in the Revolutionary WarDeclined positions in Washington’s CabinetWanted to be in the House of RepresentativesServed as Secretary of State under AdamsAppointed Chief Justice in 1801
33More Marshall Served as chief justice for 34 years Major Goals of Marshalla. Increase the powers of the nationalgovernmentb. diminish the powers of the statesc. perpetuate the Federalist principles ofcentralization
34Major Cases Marbury v Madison McCulloch v Maryland-bank stands-constitutional and free from taxation by the stateDartmouth College Case-states can’t alter charters-A charter is a contractGibbons v Ogden- gave the national government undisputed control over interstate commerceFletcher v Peck-contracts must be upheld-GACherokee Nation v Georgia- Indians had right to their land
35Legacy of MarshallEstablished the primacy of federal government over states in control of economyOpened the way for an increased federal role in promoting economic growthAffirmed protection for corporations and other private economic institutions form local governmental interference.
36The Struggle for Missouri In 1819-there were eleven slave states and eleven free states in the senate105 to 81 in HouseIn 1819 Missouri wants to enter the Union as a slave stateMissouri is the first part of the Louisiana purchase to apply for statehoodThis would give the South an edge in the Senate
37Tallmadge AmendmentRep James Tallmadge from New York furthered the debate by proposing an amendment to the Missouri statehood bill which would gradually stop slavery in MissouriProhibit further introduction of slavery in MissouriRequire that children of slaves be emancipated at age 25Amendment was defeated
38Henry Clay’s Proposal Months of heated debate followed Then Maine applied for statehood as a free stateClay comes up with a proposalMissouri admitted as a slave stateMaine would come in as a free state and everything north of 36 30’would be free
42Monroe DoctrineBackground—British Foreign Minster George Canning suggested to the United States that both countries work together to prevent Spain from regaining control of the former coloniesU. S. was alarmed by Russian expansion from the Alaskan settlements to the west coast of North America
43Monroe Doctrine Monroe asked both Madison and Jefferson for advice They thought that a joint venture would be a good idea.
44John Quincy AdamsJohn Quincy Adams convinced Monroe to refuse any joint venture—it would restrict U. S. opportunity for further expansion in the hemisphereOn this recommendation—Monroe included a statement of independence in his address to congress
45The Monroe Doctrine Four Main Ideas American continents were not open to any further colonizationU. S. would oppose any attempt to extend European political systems to AmericasU. S. would not interfere with existing colonies in AmericaU. S. would not meddle in the internal affairs of any European country but would oppose any transfer of existing colonies in the American from one European Country to another
46European ReactionMost Europeans believed that is was arrogant, belligerent and hostileUnited States would not be able to back up its wordsNevertheless, The United States is barely 45 years old and has a population of about 10 million—challenged the European powers with a clear statement in defense of international freedom and liberal institutionsThe doctrine will become more significant later– it will first be used in the 1840’s
48Corrupt Bargain Background By 1824 the Era of Good Feeling is over Candidates usually chosen by partycaucus-convention system starts toreplace itstates doing away with propertyqualifications for voting
49William H. Crawford [GA] Candidates in 1824Henry Clay [KY]John Quincy Adams [MA]William H. Crawford [GA]
51More Corrupt Bargain Jackson gets the popular vote but not the majority in the electoral collegeGoes to the House of RepsClay uses his influenceto elect AdamsFour days later –Clay is appointedSec of State
52DiarySince my removal to the Presidential mansion, I rise about five; read two chapters of Scott's Bible and Commentary, and the corresponding Commentary of Hewlett; then the morningnewspapers, and public papers from the several departments; write seldom and not enough; breakfast an hour, from nine to ten; then have a succession of visitors, upon business, in search of place, solicitors for donations, or from mere curiosity, from eleven till between four and five o'clock. The heads of department of course occupy much of this time. Between four and six I take a walk of three or four miles. Dine from about half past five to seven, and from dark till about eleven I generally pass the evening in my chamber, signing land grants or blank patents, in the interval of which, for the last ten days I have brought up three months of arrears in my diary index. About eleven I retire to bed. My evenings are not so free from interruption as I hoped and expected they would be.
53John Quincy Adams as President Program:1. Internal Improvements2. Aid to manufacturing3. Dept of Interior4. National University5. Just Treatment of Indians6. Astronomical ObservationsHis program does not pass
54More Adams Panama Congress The Tariff Issue—new tariff passed in 1824 South wasunhappy because they saw it as aninstrument for increasing Northern profitTariff of 1828