Presentation on theme: "Center for Research on Learning"— Presentation transcript:
1 Center for Research on Learning Using Content Enhancement Routines to Increase Performance of All Students in Subject Matter ClassesDon DeshlerUniversity of KansasCenter for Research on LearningAugust 9, 2006Portland, Oregon
3 Then ask….Five important questions about literacy supports!
4 2.What is in place across a school staff to ensure that students will get the “critical” content in spite of their literacy skills?
5 A Continuum of Literacy Instruction (Content Literacy Continuum -- CLC)Level 1: Enhance content instruction (mastery of critical content for all regardless of literacy levels)Level 2: Embedded strategy instruction (routinely weave strategies within and across classes using large group instructional methods)Level 3: Intensive strategy instruction (mastery of specific strategies using intensive-explicit instructional sequences)Level 4: Intensive basic skill instruction (mastery of entry level literacy skills at the 4th grade level)Level 5: Therapeutic intervention (mastery of language underpinnings of curriculum content and learning strategies)
6 A Continuum of Literacy Instruction Level 1: Enhance content instruction (mastery of critical content for all regardless of literacy levels)Level 2: Embedded strategy instruction (routinely weave strategies within and across classes using large group instructional methods)Level 3: Intensive strategy instruction (mastery of specific strategies using intensive-explicit instructional sequences)Level 4: Intensive basic skill instruction (mastery of entry level literacy skills at the 4th grade level)Level 5: Therapeutic intervention (mastery of language underpinnings of curriculum content and learning strategies)Tutoring: Strategic Tutoring (extending instructional time through before or after school tutoring)
7 The Performance Gap Skills / Demands Years in School This graphic illustrates the dynamic that operates behind the “performance gap” that struggling adolescent readers confront. Our research has shown that the acquisition of basic reading skills tends to plateau around the 5-6th grade level. However, the demands of the curriculum continue to grow. When this slide is in the “show’ mode, you can see how it is built.Years in School
9 Anyone interested in te__________ is concerned about c__________ Anyone interested in te__________ is concerned about c__________. It’s hard to imagine te__________ sch__________without them. Although they can be bothersome, we t__________ them. When things go wrong, we sometimes blame the __________, instead of accepting responsibility for the consequences ourselves.
11 Knowledge Thinking about the curriculum: For every content area there is a set of vast knowledge.
12 Thinking About the Curriculum... KnowledgeCritical ContentCourseWithin each course or class we teach, we identify critical content that must be taught. What is it? (CC and POS)
13 Thinking About the Curriculum... KnowledgeUnitOnce teachers identify the critical content to be taught at specific grade levels, units of study are developed to teach the content.Course
14 A UnitALLMOSTSOMEIn every unit, there is essential content that you want all students to walk out knowing. There is other content that most and then some of your students may need to or want to learn.
15 “If it weren’t for students impeding our progress to the end of the term, wecould certainly be sure of covering thematerial. The question, however, is notwhether we as teachers can get to theend of the text or the end of the term,but whether our students are with uson that journey.” Pat Cross
16 Content EnhancementA way of teaching academically diverse classes in which……Integrity of the content is maintainedBoth group and individual needs are valued and metCritical features of the content are selected and transformed to promote growth for all students, andInstruction is carried out in a partnership with students
17 The goal of Content Enhancement is.… Barrier-freeeducation
19 Careful Planning around Critical Content is Essential! Selecting the critical questions.Mapping content structures.Analyzing learning difficulty based on:Reaching enhancement decisions byselecting powerful...Teaching strategically throughexplicit...Evaluating enhancementsRevaluate outcomesQuantity ComplexityInterest BackgroundRelevance OrganizationAbstractnessTeaching DevicesTeaching RoutinesNot harder, but …The Challenge
20 p. 6 The Unit Organizer CURRENT UNIT CURRENT UNIT NAME 4 BIGGER PICTUREDATE2LAST UNIT/Experience1CURRENT UNITCURRENT UNIT3NEXT UNIT/Experience8UNIT SCHEDULE5UNIT MAPp. 66UNIT SELF-TESTQUESTIONSRELATIONSHIPSUNIT7
21 p. 6 The Unit Organizer Sectionalism The Causes of the Civil War KNOWLEDGESTRUCTUREORGANIZATIONGUIDINGQUESTIONSElida CordoraNAMEDATEThe Unit OrganizerBIGGER PICTURELAST UNIT/ExperienceCURRENT UNITNEXT UNITUNIT SELF-TESTQUESTIONSRELATIONSHIPSUNITUNIT SCHEDULEUNIT MAP132456781/22The roots and consequences of civil unrest.Growth of the NationThe Causes of the Civil WarThe Civil Waris about...SectionalismppAreas ofthe U.S.Differencesbetweenthe areasEvents inLeadersacross theU.S.was based onemerged because ofbecame greater withwas influenced by1/ Cooperative groups -over pp1/ Quiz1/ Cooperative groups -over pp"Influential Personalities"projectdue1/ Quiz2/2 Cooperative groups -over pp2/ Review for test2/ Review for test2/ Testp. 6What was sectionalism as it existed in the U. S. of 1860?How did the differences in the sections of the U.S. in 1860 contribute to the start of the Civil War?What examples of sectionalism exist in the world today?descriptivecause/effectcompare/contrast
22 CONCEPT DIAGRAM À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Always Present Sometimes Present Never PresentTIE DOWN ADEFINITIONKey WordsÅPRACTICE WITH NEW EXAMPLECONVEY CONCEPTNOTE KEY WORDSOFFER OVERALLCONCEPTCLASSIFYCHARACTERISTICSÆÀÁÂÃExamples:Nonexamples:EXPLORE EXAMPLESÄ
23 Civil War armed conflict CATEGORIZATION CONCEPT DIAGRAM Å Æ À Á Â Ã Ä HierarchicalCATEGORIZATIONANALYSISof characteristicsDISCRIMINATINGEVALUATIONPRIORKNOWLEDGECONCEPT DIAGRAMAlways PresentSometimes PresentNever PresentTIE DOWN ADEFINITIONKey WordsÅPRACTICE WITH NEW EXAMPLECONVEY CONCEPTNOTE KEY WORDSOFFER OVERALLCONCEPTCLASSIFYCHARACTERISTICSÆÀÁÂÃExamples:Nonexamples:EXPLORE EXAMPLESÄCivil Wararmed conflictU.S. Civil WarNorthern Irelandcitizensone nationethnicmany nationssocial rightsDesert Storm in KuwaitGroups of citizensWithin a single nationAbout distribution of powereconomicreligiousethnicWar between nationssocialpoliticalUnited States warbetween the StatesNorthern Ireland1990’s crisis in the BalkansAmerican Revolutionary WarWorld War IWorld War II“Desert Storm” in KuwaitA civil war is a type of armed conflict among groups of citizens of a single nation that is caused by concerns about the distribution of power.
24 Comparison Table C O M P A R I N G Overall Concept Concept 1Concept2Overall Concept3Characteristics4Like Characteristics9ExtensionsCommunicate Targeted ConceptsObtain the Overall ConceptsMake lists of Known CharacteristicsPin down Like CharacteristicsAssemble Like CategoriesRecord Unlike CharacteristicsIdentify Unlike CategoriesNail Down a SummaryGo Beyond the BasicsCOMPARING5Like Categories7Unlike Categories6Unlike Characteristics8Summary
25 Comparison Table Economic Causes of Sectionalism in the U.S. in 1860 FACTSStrategic thinkingpromptsCATEGORIZATIONComparison Table1Concept2Overall Concept3Characteristics4Like Characteristics9ExtensionsCommunicate Targeted ConceptsObtain the Overall ConceptsMake lists of Known CharacteristicsPin down Like CharacteristicsAssemble Like CategoriesRecord Unlike CharacteristicsIdentify Unlike CategoriesNail Down a SummaryGo Beyond the BasicsCOMPARING5Like Categories7Unlike Categories6Unlike Characteristics8SummaryEconomic Causes of Sectionalism in the U.S. in 1860Economic conditions in the NorthEconomic conditions in the SouthStudy the economic conditions of the West in 1860, and create a list of characteristics to be compared to the North & South.Good portsGood natural resourcesImmigrants in labor forceProfit from industriesGood land transportationGood credit with other countriesSlaves in labor forceProfit from growing cottonPoor land transportationGood portsGood natural resourcesGood credit with other countriesQuality of portsQuality of natural resourcesQuality of creditImmigrants in labor forceProfit from industriesGood land transportationSlaves in labor forceProfit from growing cottonPoor land transportationPrimary source of laborSource of profitsQuality of land transportationEconomic conditions in the North and South in 1860 were alike because both had good natural resources, ports, and credit. Their primary sources of labor and profits were different, as was the quality of their land transportation.
26 Anchoring Table The Challenge 6 1 2 4 5 3 7 Known Information 3 CollectKnown Information4 HighlightCharacteristics ofKnown Concept5 ObserveCharacteristicsof New Concept6 RevealShared7 StateUnderstanding ofNew ConceptKnownInformationName: Date:Anchoring Table2 Name6Characteristics of Known ConceptCharacteristics of New ConceptCharacteristics Shared1 Announcethe New ConceptANCHORSLinkingSteps:Understanding of the New Concept:Unit:124537The Challenge
27 of similar characteristics to ANALYSISof similar characteristics tocreate an analogyexplorationof PRIOR KNOWLEDGESYNTHESIS
29 Question Exploration Guide GENERATIONmain ideaSUMMARIZATIONAPPLICATIONandGENERALIZATIONVOCABULARYQuestion Exploration GuideText ReferenceName:CourseLessonUnitCriticalQuestion #:TitleDate:1How did differences in the geographical sections of the U.S. in 1860 set the stage for the American Civil War?What is the Critical Question?2Geography?Civil War ?Sections of the U.S. in 1860s?What are the Key Terms and explanations?The study of the earth, its features and distribution of lifeA war between people of the same countryNorth, South and West3What are the Supporting Questions and answers?What were the geographical differences of the sections?What differences did land features cause?What resulted from different products & workers?Different land features: The North had hills and shores; the South had rich soil for growing cotton; and the West had large expanses of land.Different products & workers: North used low-paid workers in factories. South used slaves to produce cotton & tobacco on plantations. West used families on farms & ranches to produce crops & meat.Different ideas: People had different ideas about taxation of products & right of workers.Geographic differences can lead to different ways of living. This can lead to ideas so different that groups will go to war.4What is the main Idea answer?56Is there an Overall Idea? Is there a real-world use?Compare the differences caused by geography in the U.S. in 1860 to today.How can we use the main idea?Describe a conflict in your community or state related to geography.Bulgren KU-CRL 2/011
32 What is the Framing Routine? A way to help students understand and learn key information and to consider its significance.A way to help students focus on the relationships between main ideas and details.
33 WHEN DO YOU USE THE ROUTINE? Within the context of regular instructionto help students remember the meaningof or relationships among:Vocabulary wordsPeopleEventsPlacesOther important terms and ideas
34 COMPONENTS OF THE ROUTINE The FrameThe Linking StepsThe Cue-Do-Review Sequence
35 The Frame is a visual device that: Promotes understanding and recall of a key topic and associated essential details.Can be used to take notes about a key topic.Focuses attention on the importance behind the key topic.Identifies the main ideas related to the key topic, essential details behind each main idea, and a summary of what’s important to remember about the key topic.
47 Determining if Details are Essentials ImportanceWhich details are so important that all students must understandthem if they are to understand the main idea?FrequencyWhich details will be referred to frequently in class?InterestWhich details are important to know, but may not seem veryInteresting to students and, therefore, require special attention?PreparationWhich details are foundations for information that will be coveredlater in the course and encountered later in life?ComplexityWhich details are difficult to understand because of their complexity?
48 M ake a Big Idea Statement The LINKING STEPSF ocus on the topicR eveal main ideasA nalyze detailsM ake a Big Idea Statement
49 Determine the “SO WHAT?” importance statement May be...Basic summaryTopical applications or implicationsGenerative, or basic ‘life truth’
50 The LINKING STEPSF ocus on the topicR eveal main ideasA nalyze detailsM ake a Big Idea StatementE xtend understanding
51 OPTIONS FOR EXTENDING UNDERSTANDING Prioritize main ideas and essential details according to importancePrioritize main ideas according to other criteria (e.g., greatest impact on their lives? most controversial? most misunderstood?)Speculate - What might have happened under a different set of circumstances?Forecast what happened next.Connect how main ideas relate to:each otherpreviously learningpast experiencesthe real world
52 Vary Your Use of the Routine Brainstorm ActivityThe KEW Routine (Know?Expect?Want?)Fill-in-the-BlanksPerspective TakingFraming ThemesFraming SpeechesIn Class DebatesLinear RelationshipsCause & EffectPost-instruction constructionReading FramesAnticipation GuideOpinion FormationDecision Making
53 Cost – Benefit Analysis The FRAME RoutineKey TopicWhat hurts me?Example:So What? (What does this tell me about my values?)CostsWhat helps me?BenefitsCost – Benefit AnalysisGoing to Burger King at lunch time
54 There are three types of resources, and all resources are limited, so choices must be made. Key Ideaare …So What? (What’s important to understand about this?)ExamplesResourcesCategory 1Category 2Category 3
55 So what? (What’s important to understand about this?) The FrameKey TopicGeographic Termsis about...the are 3 main imaginary lines which circle the earth.Main Idea:equatorMain Idea:Tropic of CancerMain Idea:Tropic of CapricornEssential detailsEssential detailsEssential detailsxxxxxxWhat is it?xxxxxxWhere is it?xxxxxxMemory DeviceThis frame is based on Joe Fisher’s telling of Naomi Zigmond’s classic story about little Joey in Geography class. He completely missed the point of a well-thought out lesson that included a memory device!xxxxxxExample CountrySo what? (What’s important to understand about this?)xx
56 Intense-Explicit Instruction LEVEL 3/4/5PretestDescribeCommitment (student & teacher)GoalsHigh expectationsModelPractice and quality feedbackControlled and advancedPosttest & reflectGeneralize, transfer, applyLEVEL 1CueDoReviewLEVEL 2“I do it!” (Learn by watching)“We do it!” (Learn by sharing)“Ya’ll do it!” (Learn by sharing)“You do it! (Learn by practicing)
57 Content Literacy “Synergy” CONTENT CLASSESLevel 1. Enhanced Content InstructionCONTENT CLASSESLevel 2. Embedded Strategy InstructionLevel 3. Intensive Strategy Instruction• strategy classes• strategic tutoring• Point # 4: A framework for a comprehensive and coordinated approach.COST EFFECTIVE IN THAT FEWER NEED INTENSIVE INSTRUCTION• Starts with general education. All levels are linked and overlap. NOT segregated, isolated programs and services.A school wide model. Supports SIM AND other programs/interventionsLevel 4. Intensive Basic Skill InstructionLevel 5. Therapeutic InterventionFoundational language competenciesImproved LiteracyKU-CRL CLC- Lenz, Ehren, &Deshler, 2005
58 Contact Don Deshler 785.864.4780 firstname.lastname@example.org Patty Graner