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Using Content Enhancement Routines to Increase Performance of All Students in Subject Matter Classes Don Deshler University of Kansas Center for Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Using Content Enhancement Routines to Increase Performance of All Students in Subject Matter Classes Don Deshler University of Kansas Center for Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Content Enhancement Routines to Increase Performance of All Students in Subject Matter Classes Don Deshler University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning August 9, 2006 Portland, Oregon

2 Linking today to yesterday!

3 Then ask …. Five important questions about literacy supports!

4 2.What is in place across a school staff to ensure that students will get the “critical” content in spite of their literacy skills?

5 A Continuum of Literacy Instruction (Content Literacy Continuum -- CLC) Level 1:Enhance content instruction (mastery of critical content for all regardless of literacy levels) Level 2:Embedded strategy instruction (routinely weave strategies within and across classes using large group instructional methods) Level 3:Intensive strategy instruction (mastery of specific strategies using intensive-explicit instructional sequences) Level 4:Intensive basic skill instruction (mastery of entry level literacy skills at the 4th grade level) Level 5:Therapeutic intervention (mastery of language underpinnings of curriculum content and learning strategies)

6 A Continuum of Literacy Instruction Level 1: Enhance content instruction (mastery of critical content for all regardless of literacy levels) Level 2: Embedded strategy instruction (routinely weave strategies within and across classes using large group instructional methods) Level 3: Intensive strategy instruction (mastery of specific strategies using intensive-explicit instructional sequences) Level 4: Intensive basic skill instruction (mastery of entry level literacy skills at the 4th grade level) Level 5: Therapeutic intervention (mastery of language underpinnings of curriculum content and learning strategies) Tutoring: Strategic Tutoring (extending instructional time through before or after school tutoring)

7 The Performance Gap Years in School Skills Demands /

8 A little exercise to remind us …….

9 Anyone interested in te__________ is concerned about c__________. It’s hard to imagine te__________ sch__________without them. Although they can be bothersome, we t__________ them. When things go wrong, we sometimes blame the __________, instead of accepting responsibility for the consequences ourselves.

10 Separating the trees from the __________.

11 Thinking about the curriculum: Knowledge

12 Thinking About the Curriculum... Knowledge Course Critical Content

13 Knowledge Course Unit Thinking About the Curriculum...

14 A Unit AL L MOST SOM E

15 “If it weren’t for students impeding our progress to the end of the term, we could certainly be sure of covering the material. The question, however, is not whether we as teachers can get to the end of the text or the end of the term, but whether our students are with us on that journey.” Pat Cross

16 Content Enhancement A way of teaching academically diverse classes in which…… Integrity of the content is maintainedIntegrity of the content is maintained Both group and individual needs are valued and metBoth group and individual needs are valued and met Critical features of the content are selected and transformed to promote growth for all students, andCritical features of the content are selected and transformed to promote growth for all students, and Instruction is carried out in a partnership with studentsInstruction is carried out in a partnership with students

17 The goal of Content Enhancement is.… Barrier-freeeducation

18 Content Enhancement Teaching Routines Planning & Organizing Course Organizer Unit Organizer Lesson Organizer Exploring Text, Topics, & Details Framing Routine Survey Routine Clarifying Routine Order Routine Teaching Concepts Concept Mastery Routine Concept Anchoring Routine Concept Comparison Routine Increasing Performance Quality Assignment Routine Question Exploration Routine Recall Enhancement Routine

19 Careful Planning around Critical Content is Essential! S electing the critical questions. M apping content structures. A nalyzing learning difficulty based on : R eaching enhancement decisions by selecting powerful... T eaching strategically through explicit... E valuating enhancements R evaluate outcomes QuantityComplexity Interest Background RelevanceOrganization Abstractness Teaching Devices Teaching Routines Not harder, but …

20 NAME DATE The Unit Organizer BIGGER PICTURE LAST UNIT/Experience CURRENT UNIT NEXT UNIT/Experience UNIT SELF-TEST QUESTIONS UNIT RELATIONSHIPS UNIT SCHEDULEUNIT MAP CURRENT UNIT

21 Elida Cordora NAME DATE The Unit Organizer BIGGER PICTURE LAST UNIT/Experience CURRENT UNIT NEXT UNIT/Experience UNIT SELF-TEST QUESTIONS UNIT RELATIONSHIPS UNIT SCHEDULEUNIT MAP CURRENT UNIT /22 The roots and consequences of civil unrest. The Causes of the Civil War Growth of the Nation The Civil War 1/22 Cooperative groups - over pp /28 Quiz 1/29 Cooperative groups - over pp "Influential Personalities" projectdue 1/30 Quiz 2/2 Cooperative groups - over pp /6 Review for test 2/7 Review for test 2/6 Test is about... Sectionalism pp Areas of the U.S. Differences between the areas Events in the U.S. Leaders across the U.S. was based on emerged because of became greater with was influenced by descriptive cause/effect compare/contrast What was sectionalism as it existed in the U. S. of 1860? How did the differences in the sections of the U.S. in 1860 contribute to the start of the Civil War? What examples of sectionalism exist in the world today? ORGANIZATION KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURE GUIDING QUESTIONS

22 CONCEPT DIAGRAM Always PresentSometimes Present Never Present TIE DOWN A DEFINITION Key Words Å PRACTICE WITH NEW EXAMPLE CONVEY CONCEPT NOTE KEY WORDS OFFER OVERALL CONCEPT CLASSIFY CHARACTERISTICS Æ À Á Â Ã À Á Â Examples: Nonexamples: EXPLORE EXAMPLES Ä

23 CONCEPT DIAGRAM Always PresentSometimes Present Never Present TIE DOWN A DEFINITION Key Words Å PRACTICE WITH NEW EXAMPLE CONVEY CONCEPT NOTE KEY WORDS OFFER OVERALL CONCEPT CLASSIFY CHARACTERISTICS Æ À Á Â Ã À Á Â Examples: Nonexamples: EXPLORE EXAMPLES Ä Civil War armed conflict United States war between the States Northern Ireland 1990’s crisis in the Balkans American Revolutionary War World War I World War II “Desert Storm” in Kuwait A civil war is a type of armed conflict among groups of citizens of a single nation that is caused by concerns about the distribution of power. U.S. Civil War Northern Ireland citizens one nation ethnic many nations social rights Desert Storm in Kuwait Groups of citizens Within a single nation About distribution of power economic religious ethnic War between nations social political PRIOR KNOWLEDGE Hierarchical CATEGORIZATION ANALYSIS of characteristics DISCRIMINATING EVALUATION

24 Comparison Table 1 Concept 1 2 Overall Concept 3 Characteristics 3 4 Like Characteristics 9 Extensions Communicate Targeted Concepts Obtain the Overall Concepts Make lists of Known Characteristics Pin down Like Characteristics Assemble Like Categories Record Unlike Characteristics Identify Unlike Categories Nail Down a Summary Go Beyond the Basics COMPARINGCOMPARING 5 Like Categories 7 Unlike Categories 6 Unlike Characteristics 6 8 Summary

25 Comparison Table 1 Concept 1 2 Overall Concept 3 Characteristics 3 4 Like Characteristics 9 Extensions Communicate Targeted Concepts Obtain the Overall Concepts Make lists of Known Characteristics Pin down Like Characteristics Assemble Like Categories Record Unlike Characteristics Identify Unlike Categories Nail Down a Summary Go Beyond the Basics COMPARINGCOMPARING 5 Like Categories 7 Unlike Categories 6 Unlike Characteristics 6 8 Summary Economic Causes of Sectionalism in the U.S. in 1860 Economic conditions in the North Economic conditions in the South Good ports Good natural resources Immigrants in labor force Profit from industries Good land transportation Good credit with other countries Good ports Good natural resources Slaves in labor force Profit from growing cotton Poor land transportation Good credit with other countries Study the economic conditions of the West in 1860, and create a list of characteristics to be compared to the North & South. Good ports Good natural resources Good credit with other countries Quality of ports Quality of natural resources Quality of credit Immigrants in labor force Profit from industries Good land transportation Slaves in labor force Profit from growing cotton Poor land transportation Primary source of labor Source of profits Quality of land transportation Economic conditions in the North and South in 1860 were alike because both had good natural resources, ports, and credit. Their primary sources of labor and profits were different, as was the quality of their land transportation. CATEGORIZATION Strategic thinking prompts FACTS

26 3 Collect Known Information 4 Highlight Characteristics of Known Concept 5 Observe Characteristics of New Concept 6 Reveal Characteristics Shared 7 State Understanding of New Concept Known Information Name: Date: Anchoring Table 2 Name Known Concept 6 Characteristics of Known Concept Characteristics of New ConceptCharacteristics Shared Known Concept New Concept 1 Announce the New Concept ANCHORS Linking Steps: Understanding of the New Concept: Unit:

27 ANALYSIS of similar characteristics to create an analogy exploration of PRIOR KNOWLEDGE SYNTHESIS

28 Name:_____________________ Lesson/Topic:_____________________ Date:_____________ Unit:___________________ Cause and Effect Table Question: Describe Beginning Situation: Conclusion: Key Words: Cause(s)Effect(s) 21 © 2004 Bulgren KU-CRL/IEI 6 End Result(s) Sequence 3 Why did the Civil War in America happen? Secede - to withdraw Civil - related to citizens The U. S. Constitution gave rights to both the states and the federal government. Some Southerners believed that any state could refuse to obey an act of Congress it considered unconstitutional. Different interpretations of the Constitution led to disagreements between North and South. Disagreements were: 1.) Social (slavery) 2.) Economic (tariffs to protect industries ) 3.) Political (extent of states’ rights versus federal rights) Eleven Southern states decided to secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America. However, the federal government believed the South could not leave the Union. Both sides were willing to fight for their beliefs. The American Civil War was fought between the North and South. Complex issues and interpretations led to the American Civil War. Federal - government in which most power belongs to a central authority but states have some powers. Explanation of CAUSATION SEQUENCE VOCABULARY

29 Question Exploration Guide Bulgren KU-CRL 2/01 Date: Title Critical Question #: Name:Text Reference Course Lesson Unit How can we use the main idea? 5 Is there an Overall Idea? Is there a real-world use? 6 1 What is the Critical Question? What is the main Idea answer? 4 2 What are the Key Terms and explanations? 3 What are the Supporting Questions and answers? 1 How did differences in the geographical sections of the U.S. in 1860 set the stage for the American Civil War? Geography? Civil War ? Sections of the U.S. in 1860s? The study of the earth, its features and distribution of life A war between people of the same country North, South and West Different land features: The North had hills and shores; the South had rich soil for growing cotton; and the West had large expanses of land. Different products & workers: North used low-paid workers in factories. South used slaves to produce cotton & tobacco on plantations. West used families on farms & ranches to produce crops & meat. Different ideas: People had different ideas about taxation of products & right of workers. What were the geographical differences of the sections? What differences did land features cause? What resulted from different products & workers? Geographic differences can lead to different ways of living. This can lead to ideas so different that groups will go to war. Compare the differences caused by geography in the U.S. in 1860 to today. Describe a conflict in your community or state related to geography. APPLICATION and GENERALIZATION VOCABULARY QUESTION GENERATION main idea SUMMARIZATION

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32 What is the Framing Routine? A way to help students understand and learn key information and to consider its significance. A way to help students focus on the relationships between main ideas and details.

33 WHEN DO YOU USE THE ROUTINE? Within the context of regular instruction to help students remember the meaning of or relationships among: Vocabulary words People Events Places Other important terms and ideas

34 COMPONENTS OF THE ROUTINE The Frame The Linking Steps The Cue-Do-Review Sequence

35 The Frame is a visual device that:  Promotes understanding and recall of a key topic and associated essential details.  Can be used to take notes about a key topic.  Focuses attention on the importance behind the key topic.  Identifies the main ideas related to the key topic, essential details behind each main idea, and a summary of what’s important to remember about the key topic.

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39 The LINKING STEPS F ocus on the topic R eveal main ideas A nalyze details M ake a Big Idea Statement E xtend understanding

40 The LINKING STEPS F ocus on the topic

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43 The LINKING STEPS F ocus on the topic R eveal main ideas

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45 The LINKING STEPS F ocus on the topic R eveal main ideas A nalyze details

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47 Determining if Details are Essentials Importance Which details are so important that all students must understand them if they are to understand the main idea? Frequency Which details will be referred to frequently in class? Interest Which details are important to know, but may not seem very Interesting to students and, therefore, require special attention? Preparation Which details are foundations for information that will be covered later in the course and encountered later in life? Complexity Which details are difficult to understand because of their complexity?

48 The LINKING STEPS F ocus on the topic R eveal main ideas A nalyze details M ake a Big Idea Statement

49 Determine the “SO WHAT?” importance statement May be... *Basic summary *Topical applications or implications *Generative, or basic ‘life truth’

50 The LINKING STEPS F ocus on the topic R eveal main ideas A nalyze details M ake a Big Idea Statement E xtend understanding

51 OPTIONS FOR EXTENDING UNDERSTANDING  Prioritize main ideas and essential details according to importance  Prioritize main ideas according to other criteria (e.g., greatest impact on their lives? most controversial? most misunderstood?)  Speculate - What might have happened under a different set of circumstances?  Forecast what happened next.  Connect how main ideas relate to:  each other  previously learning  past experiences  the real world

52  Brainstorm Activity  The KEW Routine (Know?Expect?Want?)  Fill-in-the-Blanks  Perspective Taking  Framing Themes  Framing Speeches  In Class Debates  Linear Relationships  Cause & Effect  Post-instruction construction  Reading Frames  Anticipation Guide  Opinion Formation  Decision Making Vary Your Use of the Routine

53 The FRAME Routine Key Topic What hurts me? Example: So What? (What does this tell me about my values?) Costs What helps me? Benefits Cost – Benefit Analysis Going to Burger King at lunch time

54 There are three types of resources, and all resources are limited, so choices must be made. Key Idea are … So What? (What’s important to understand about this?) Examples Resources Category 1Category 2Category 3

55 the are 3 main imaginary lines which circle the earth. xx The Frame Key Topic Geographic Terms is about... So what? (What’s important to understand about this?) Main Idea: equator Main Idea: Tropic of Cancer Main Idea: Tropic of Capricorn Essential details xx

56 Intense-Explicit Instruction LEVEL 1 Cue Do Review LEVEL 2 “I do it!” (Learn by watching) “We do it!” (Learn by sharing) “Ya’ll do it!” (Learn by sharing) “You do it! (Learn by practicing) LEVEL 3/4/5 PretestPretest DescribeDescribe –Commitment (student & teacher) –Goals –High expectations ModelModel Practice and quality feedbackPractice and quality feedback –Controlled and advanced Posttest & reflectPosttest & reflect Generalize, transfer, applyGeneralize, transfer, apply

57 Content Literacy “Synergy” Improved Literacy CONTENT CLASSES Level 1. Enhanced Content Instruction CONTENT CLASSES Level 2. Embedded Strategy Instruction Level 3. Intensive Strategy Instruction strategy classes strategic tutoring Level 4. Intensive Basic Skill Instruction KU-CRLCLC- Lenz, Ehren, &Deshler, 2005 Level 5. Therapeutic Intervention Foundational language competencies

58 Contact Don Deshler Patty Graner


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