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SPED 510 Reading & Writing Across the Continuum

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Presentation on theme: "SPED 510 Reading & Writing Across the Continuum"— Presentation transcript:

1 SPED 510 Reading & Writing Across the Continuum
Week 1. Unit Planning


3 Unit Planning Unit Questions 1. What are the challenges of providing “access to the general curriculum” to the students we serve? 2. What are the learning difficulties we should consider and how can we accommodate them in our instructional planning? 3. How would I design an instructional unit in science, social studies, or other content areas to reach all learners, including those who struggle with literacy skills?

4 Unit Planning The material in this unit on unit planning is taken from Lenz, B. K., & Deshler, D. D. (2004). Teaching content to all: Evidence-based inclusive practices in middle and secondary schools. Boston: Pearson.

5 The Challenge A. Federal mandate: “Access to the general curriculum”
B. Challenges in general curriculum: 1. Vocabulary: rapid introduction of new terms 2. Density of new concepts in content area instruction 3. Assumption of prior knowledge; abstract concepts not defined.

6 The Challenge C. Heavy reliance on textbooks and text materials 1. Text conventions: headings, subheadings, charts & graphs, italics, pronunciation guides, previews & summaries, glossaries 2. Structure: different organization (vs. narrative: i.e., enumerative, problem-solution-effect, compare/contrast) 3. Inconsiderate text (e.g., location of main idea) 4. Readability (not controlled)

7 The Challenge D. Importance of a repertoire of comprehension strategies and study skills

8 Two-pronged Approach A. Modify the environment
Build a cooperative community Use effective planning routines Enhance content learning B. Teach students learning strategies

9 Unit Planning Select critical outcomes and shape the critical questions Map critical content Analyze for learning difficulties Reach enhancement decisions Teach strategically Evaluate mastery Revisit outcomes

10 Select critical outcomes and shape the critical questions
1. Problem: Amount of information Depth vs. breadth 2. Teacher’s role: Standards Curriculum guides Enduring understanding

11 Select critical outcomes and shape the critical questions
3. Focus on outcomes vs. content  Topics vs. concepts and ideas that give meaning and apply to real life “Backward design”

12 Select critical outcomes and shape the critical questions
4. Focus on “big ideas” Wiggins & McTighe, 1998 Enduring understanding Important to know and do Worth being familiar with

13 Select critical outcomes and shape the critical questions

14 Select critical outcomes and shape the critical questions

15 Select critical outcomes and shape the critical questions
Example: Causes of the Civil War

With your partner, think about the content outcomes on the left. Then sort them into the 10% (approx.) that all students should know and demonstrate, those (about 30%) that most students should understand, and those that some students will know and demonstrate (in the column on right).

17 Shape the critical questions
6. Translate outcomes into critical questions. Purpose of critical questions: Preview content Highlight big ideas Set a purpose for reading and discussion Study aid  Small set of big idea questions

18 Shape the critical questions
Questions that require deep thinking Examples: Explanation: Examples – Demonstrate understanding of a concept by giving examples (and/or non-examples) of a concept or principle Explanation: Hierarchy – Identifying which of a series or parts of a whole is most important, and why Rank – Organize information according to some comparative value (e.g., size, number, priority) Compare/contrast – Listing both similarities and differences between two (or more) related concepts

19 Shape the critical questions
Examples (continued): Process – Describes events in the order in which they happen(ed) Causality – Describes events in terms of causes and effects or outcomes Problem and Solution – Identification of a challenging situation and its resolution (proposed or demonstrated). Should help students not only think about the content, but how content is meaningful or important.

20 PRACTICE ACTIVITY 2 With your partner, choose three “big idea” outcomes from Practice Activity 1 and translate them into three critical questions. Then indicate what cognitive relationship they require (explanation, compare/contrast, causality, etc.).

21 Map the critical content
Graphic representation of content Why? A good content map is: Limiting Connected and hierarchical Linear Labeled Simple

22 Map the critical content

23 Map the critical content

24 Map the critical content
How to construct a unit map (Zimmaro & Cawley, 1998): Identify the idea or ideas you want to map. Arrange concepts in a pattern (three-level). Use a shape such as a rectangle or circle to enclose each idea or concept. Use straight lines to link related terms. Label each line to identify the relationship. Rework the map until it is clearest.

25 PRACTICE ACTIVITY 3 With your partner(s), choose one of the unit topics below. Then brainstorm subtopics that might be covered in that unit and, following the above steps, create a 3-tiered unit map. Transportation The Water Cycle The Electoral Process Energy Resources

26 Analyze for learning difficulties
1. Get to know your students. a. Will content be sufficiently relevant? b. Will students have necessary background knowledge? c. Which abstract concepts will be difficult for them? 2. Many students with learning challenges will have difficulty because of their unique or common learning differences.

27 PRACTICE ACTIVITY 4 With your partner, see if you can generate five learning challenges that your students might have with content area material as it is usually presented.

28 Analyze for learning difficulties
Many students with learning problems have difficulty: Relating new information to prior knowledge Seeing the big ideas Translating big ideas into concepts that make sense to them Identifying how information is structured Employing metacognitive strategies Managing time

29 Reach enhancement decisions
Content enhancement A way of teaching in which critical parts of the content are emphasized and lessons are transformed in a manner that promotes student learning.

30 Reach enhancement decisions
Content enhancement requires that: Both group and individual needs are valued and met The integrity of the content is maintained Critical aspects of the content are transformed Instruction is carried out in partnership with students.

31 Reach enhancement decisions
Teaching practices that help: Establishing context (last unit, next unit, bigger picture) Providing and using a unit map Making unit relationships explicit Self-test questions Unit schedule

32 Teach strategically CUE: Preview unit using unit organizer
DO REVIEW CUE: Preview unit using unit organizer Explain the ways you’ll be teaching State your expectations

33 Unit Organizer

34 Consistent, simple, repetitious language
Teach strategically DO: a. Explicit instruction: Step-by-step Consistent, simple, repetitious language Use of graphic organizers and other multisensory aids Multiple examples Frequent opportunities for response and practice Clear, specific feedback and reteaching Cumulative review

35 Teach strategically

36 How does this unit add to our knowledge of living things?
Teach strategically REVIEW: Reviewing the unit How does this unit add to our knowledge of living things? The Unit Organizer has a sentence definition of ecology. How would you describe ecology? What are some important ideas in this unit? Which ideas are clearest to you? What questions do you still have?

37 Two last steps: Evaluate mastery Revisit outcomes
Assessment should be tied to unit objectives (critical questions). Focus should be shifted from competence of student to successfulness of teaching. and… Revisit outcomes

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