The Performance Gap Students Skills Years in School 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 The “GAP” 2013-2014 School Year NCLB
The Performance Gap / Existing Support Grade Level Expectations Demands Skills Years in School
The Performance Gap / Infrastructure Support Flexible Scheduling Planning Time Professional Development Time Extended Learning Time Smaller Learning Communities Grade Level Expectations Demands Skills Infrastructure Supports Current Supports Years in School
The Performance Gap / Grade Level Expectations Demands Skills System Learning Supports Infrastructure Supports Current Supports Formative Assessment Progress Monitoring Data-Based Decision Making Collaborative Problem-Solving Instructional Coaching Focused Professional Learning System Learning Supports Years in School
The Performance Gap / Grade Level Expectations Demands Skills Instructional Core System Learning Supports Structural Supports Current Supports Years in School Instructional Core Motivation/Behavior Supports Smarter Standards- Based Curriculum Planning Engaging Instructional Materials& Activities Student-Informed Teaching Connected Courses & Coherent Learning Continuum of Literacy Instruction
Strategic Instruction Model Learning Strategies Content Enhancement Routines
Give me a fish and I eat for a day. Teach me to fish, and I eat for a lifetime. - Chinese Proverb Give me a fish while you’re teaching me how to catch my own. That way I won’t starve to death while I’m learning to tie flies. - Rainbow Mike Learning Strategies Content Enhancement Routines
The Reality I don’t know how to fish. I don’t want to learn how to fish. I don’t even like fish. So don’t bother me!
Hmmm… Your Task… Draw a solid line from Box A to Box A Box B to Box B Box C to Box C You cannot have any of your lines crossing or touching. go outside of the big box. go through any of the little boxes.
What is a Strategy? A set of decision processes in a sequence That signal an action to perform And is composed of a set of subskills
Learning Strategies Curriculum Acquisition Word Identification Paraphrasing Self-Questioning Visual Imagery Inference Storage First-Letter Mnemonic Paired Associates LINCS Vocabulary Word Mapping Expression of Competence Sentence Writing Paragraph Writing Error Monitoring Theme Writing Assignment Completion Test-Taking Essay Test Taking
What does … Intensive, Explicit, Systematic instruction look like?
Stages of Acquisition 1 – Pretest and make commitments 2 – Describe the strategy 3 – Model 4 – Verbal Rehearsal 5 – Controlled Practice and Feedback 6 – Advanced Practice and Feedback 7 – Post-test and make commitments 8 – Generalization
Stage 1 – Pretest and Make Commitments Determines which students need strategy Teacher and students commit themselves to working hard to learn the strategy
Stage 2 - Describe Teacher explains how the strategy will help students. Group discusses situations in which the strategy will be used. Group discusses results they can expect. Teacher explains the steps of the strategy.
Stage 3 - Model Teacher demonstrates the strategy while “thinking out loud”. Teacher involves students in the demonstration.
Stage 4 – Verbal Rehearsal Ensure that students can name steps of the strategy. Ensure that students understand where, when, and why to use the strategy.
Stage 5 – Controlled Practice and Feedback Students practice strategy at an easy level. Teacher monitors and provides quality feedback. Re-instruct if necessary. Mastery is expected.
Types of practice include… Guided practice Group practice Paired practice Individual practice … but only Individual Practice ensures mastery for every student
Quality Feedback is … Positive Corrective Individual Timely
Sequence for Correction 1. Specify a category of errors. 2. Specify what the student should do. 3. Provide a model. 4. Have student practice. 5. Have the student paraphrase back. 6. Have the student write a goal. 7. Repeat steps 1-6 for each category of errors made. 8. Communicate your positive expectations to the student.
Stage 6 – Advanced Practice and Feedback Students practice at grade level Teacher monitors and provides quality feedback Independence is emphasized
Stage 7 – Posttest and Make Commitments Test for mastery Celebrate Make commitments for generalization
Stage 8 - Generalization Orientation – Discussion of when and where strategy is going to be used Activation – Plans for using the strategy independently and reporting back on its use. Adaptation – How this strategy could be adapted for use in other areas Maintenance – Periodic checks to see that students are still using the strategy successfully
Watch this video clip, and notice which of the Stages of Acquisition you see.
General Education Option I Do ( I describe the strategy and model it for the class.) We Do (We, as a class do verbal practice, maybe a controlled practice or two, and then go to practicing together on our grade level material.) You Do (You, the class, use the strategy in regular classwork and homework while I, the teacher, monitor how you are doing.)
The Content Literacy Continuum Level 1: Enhanced content instruction (mastery of critical content for all regardless of literacy levels) Level 2: Embedded strategy instruction (routinely weave strategies within and across classes using large group instructional methods) Level 3: Intensive strategy instruction (mastery of specific strategies using 8-stage instructional sequence; individual Strategic Tutoring) Level 4: Intensive basic skill instruction (mastery of entry level literacy skills at the 4th grade level) Level 5: Therapeutic intervention (mastery of language underpinnings of curriculum content and learning strategies)