5The Performance Gap NCLB The “GAP” Students Skills Years in School 12 1110987654321School YearNCLBStudents SkillsThe “GAP”Years in School
6The Performance Gap / Years in School Grade Level Expectations Demands SkillsExistingSupportYears in School
7The Performance Gap Infrastructure Support / Years in School Flexible SchedulingPlanning TimeProfessional Development TimeExtended Learning TimeSmaller Learning Communities/Grade LevelExpectationsDemandsSkillsInfrastructureSupportsCurrent SupportsYears in School
8Infrastructure Supports The Performance GapFormative AssessmentProgress MonitoringData-Based Decision MakingCollaborative Problem-SolvingInstructional CoachingFocused Professional LearningSystem Learning Supports/Grade LevelExpectationsDemandsSkillsSystem LearningSupportsInfrastructure SupportsCurrentYears in School
9The Performance Gap Instructional Core / Years in School Motivation/Behavior SupportsSmarter Standards-Based Curriculum PlanningEngaging Instructional Materials& ActivitiesStudent-Informed TeachingConnected Courses & Coherent LearningContinuum of Literacy Instruction/InstructionalCoreSystem LearningSupportsStructuralCurrentGrade LevelExpectationsDemandsSkillsYears in School
10Strategic Instruction Model LearningStrategiesContent EnhancementRoutines
11Give me a fish and I eat for a day. Teach me to fish, and I eat for a lifetime.- Chinese ProverbGive me a fish while you’reteaching me how to catch my own.That way I won’t starve to deathwhile I’m learning to tie flies.- Rainbow MikeLearningStrategiesContentEnhancementRoutines
12I don’t want to learn how to fish. The RealityI don’t know how to fish.I don’t want to learn how to fish.I don’t even like fish.So don’t bother me!
18What is a Strategy? A set of decision processes in a sequence That signal an action to performAnd is composed of a set of subskills
19Learning Strategies Curriculum AcquisitionWord IdentificationParaphrasingSelf-QuestioningVisual ImageryInferenceStorageFirst-Letter MnemonicPaired AssociatesLINCS VocabularyWord MappingExpression of CompetenceSentence WritingParagraph WritingError MonitoringTheme WritingAssignment CompletionTest-TakingEssay Test Taking
20What does … Intensive, Explicit, Systematic instruction look like?
21Stages of Acquisition 1 – Pretest and make commitments 2 – Describe the strategy3 – Model4 – Verbal Rehearsal5 – Controlled Practice and Feedback6 – Advanced Practice and Feedback7 – Post-test and make commitments8 – Generalization
22Stage 1 – Pretest and Make Commitments Determines which students need strategyTeacher and students commit themselves to working hard to learn the strategy
23Stage 2 - DescribeTeacher explains how the strategy will help students.Group discusses situations in which the strategy will be used.Group discusses results they can expect.Teacher explains the steps of the strategy.
24Stage 3 - ModelTeacher demonstrates the strategy while “thinking out loud”.Teacher involves students in the demonstration.
25Stage 4 – Verbal Rehearsal Ensure that students can name steps of the strategy.Ensure that students understand where, when, and why to use the strategy.
26Stage 5 – Controlled Practice and Feedback Students practice strategy at an easy level.Teacher monitors and provides quality feedback.Re-instruct if necessary.Mastery is expected.
28Types of practice include… Guided practiceGroup practicePaired practiceIndividual practice… but only Individual Practice ensuresmastery for every student
29Quality Feedback is …PositiveCorrectiveIndividualTimely
30Sequence for Correction 1. Specify a category of errors.2. Specify what the student should do.3. Provide a model.4. Have student practice.5. Have the student paraphrase back.6. Have the student write a goal.7. Repeat steps 1-6 for each category of errors made.8. Communicate your positive expectations to the student.
31Stage 6 – Advanced Practice and Feedback Students practice at grade levelTeacher monitors and provides quality feedbackIndependence is emphasized
32Stage 7 – Posttest and Make Commitments Test for masteryCelebrateMake commitments for generalization
33Stage 8 - Generalization Orientation – Discussion of when and where strategy is going to be usedActivation – Plans for using the strategy independently and reporting back on its use.Adaptation – How this strategy could be adapted for use in other areasMaintenance – Periodic checks to see that students are still using the strategy successfully
34Watch this video clip, and notice which of the Stages of Acquisition you see.
35General Education Option I Do ( I describe the strategy and model it for the class.)We Do (We, as a class do verbal practice, maybe a controlled practice or two, and then go to practicing together on our grade level material.)You Do (You, the class, use the strategy in regular classwork and homework while I, the teacher, monitor how you are doing.)
36The Content Literacy Continuum Level 1: Enhanced content instruction (mastery of critical content forall regardless of literacy levels)Level 2: Embedded strategy instruction (routinely weave strategieswithin and across classes using large group instructional methods)Level 3: Intensive strategy instruction (mastery of specific strategiesusing 8-stage instructional sequence; individual Strategic Tutoring)Level 4: Intensive basic skill instruction (mastery of entry levelliteracy skills at the 4th grade level)Level 5: Therapeutic intervention (mastery of language underpinningsof curriculum content and learning strategies)