2Difference Frameworks Essentialism/ PositivismEntities exist outside oneselfConstructionismSocial processes determine the importance and meaning of differenceE.g., Chris Yates in TMOD p. 5 (Rosenblum & Travis, 1996)Sexual Identity…Orientation V. Preference
3Difference From….Who has the power to determine what/who is different?Frankenburg (1996) In America “whites are the nondefined definers of other people.” e.g., European People in boats (Us) V. Indigenous People on land (Them)How do we identify ourselves?
4Identity FormationIdentity= the condition of being some specific person as fashioned by self and societyIdentification= the psychological process wherein children try to look, act, feel and be like significant people in their social environment as part of their identity formation
5Identification Mechanisms Differentiation (Freud’s,1921 primary/secondary identification)Affiliation (Chodorow, 1974)Imitation and Social learning (Bandura, 1969; Mischell, 1966)Cognitive schema Independent V. Interdependent ConstrualsSocial patterns impacting attitudes, beliefs, cognitions, norms, values, goals, and family structures
6Individualism, An Independent Construal A cultural pattern stressing autonomy and independenceFocus on a “nuclear family”More tolerant of practices like divorceMore libertarian
7Collectivism– An Interdependent Construal Social pattern of closely linked individuals who define themselves as interdependent members of a collective (e.g., family, coworkers, etc.)Large family living closelyGreater conformityFocus on “in-group” v. “out-group”
8United StatesU.S. mainstream society tends to be individualistic/independentHowever, U.S. parallel cultures tend to be collectivistic/interdependent
9United States Southern States as Collectivistic Oppositional racial consciousness= unity in opposition I.e., minority group reacting to a powerful, hostile majorityAgrarian societyRelative poverty.…. Social dependenceChurch life…. Fundamentalism
10Mountainwest & Great Plains as Individualistic Tend to be individualisticSouthwest I.e., NM, AZ, NV, CA are collectivistic due to Latino cultureUT is more collectivistic due to Mormon influenceHI is collectivistic due to Asian influence
11Ethnic Identity Formation Social Identity: The part of a person’s self-concept that is based on identification with a nation, culture, or group or with gender or other roles in society.Ethnic Identity: A person’s identification with a racial, religious, or ethnic group.Acculturation: The process by which members of minority groups come to identify with and feel part of the mainstream culture.
13White Identity Formation Helms (1995) Two major developmental tasks must be achieved for Whites to form a healthy white identity:1- The abandonment of individual racism2- The opposition to institutional and cultural racism
14Helms’ 6 Stages of White Identity ContactPseudo-independentDisintegrationImmersion/EmmersionReintegrationAutonomy
15Contact Little attention is given to their ethnic identity Perceive selves as color blindPerceive racism as the prejudiced behaviors of individuals rather than as a system
16Disintegration Growing awareness of racism & White privilege Discomfort w/ feelings of shame, guilt & anger in recognizing own prejudices & that of familyBegin to recognize how much their lives & those of people of color have been affected by society’s racismSocial pressure from friends & acquaintances to not notice racism may be powerful
17ReintegrationFeelings of guilt & denial may be transformed into fear & anger directed toward people of colorFrustration over being seen as a group member rather than as an individualAs meritocracy is facilitated by individualism, questions about society & one’s accomplishments ariseTired of being “tested”.
18Pseudo-Independence Greater awareness of institutional racism Greater commitment to unlearn one’s racismFear of speaking in groups w/ people of color due to fear of revealing white privilegeSeek support of other White allies who are further along in this process
19Immersion/Emmersion Redefinition of Whiteness Guilt & Shame fade Involvement in White antiracist groups
20AutonomyNew identity of “whiteness” is incorporated into personal identityThis positive identity energizes the individual to confront racism & oppression in their daily livesOpen to new information & new ways of thinking about racial/cultural variablesReawakened sense of empowerment
22Gay Identity Lewis (1979) Five Stages of Gay/Lesbian Identity Development 1_ Discomfort with heterosexual & patriarchal nature of socialization2_ Labeling self as different from other men/women3_ Becoming aware of gayness/lesbianism4_ Finding and becoming involved in gay/lesbian community5_ Educating self about gay/lesbian lifestyle
23Three Groups of Lesbians Henderson (1979) Ideological LesbiansWomen who can be viewed as radical feminists for whom a lesbian lifestyle is politically correctPersonal LesbiansWomen concerned with establishing an independent identity who find homosexuality supportive of this goal and who view lesbianism as a choiceInterpersonal LesbiansWomen who find themselves involved with another women and who experience their involvement as a discovery rather than a choice