2Native American Clients Concept of NoninterferenceWithdrawal (emotional/physical)Changing the subjectPretending not to hearLack of eye contactMeaning of a firm handshakeInitial lack of trustDisrespect shown by questioning about personal life
3African American Clients Unrealistic empathyLanguage barriersEurocentric views of human behaviorFocus on individualsLack of attention to spiritualityLack of importance of emotionsRely on research findings not applicable to African Americans
4Latino Clients Bilingual challenges Other challenges longstanding value systemsethnic backgroundssocioeconomic factorslanguagesbehavior patterns
5Gay and Lesbian Clients Heterosexism of social workersLack of knowledgeAcceptance of stereotypesFear of the unknownDebate over cause is irrelevantOther issuesComing outHigh suicide rate for adolescentsHate crimesEqual rights
6Feminist Social WorkMany of problems experienced by both men and women today are related to gender inequality:privilegespoweraccess to resourcesMale and female social workers must be aware of ways that gender shapes a client’s problem.
7Knowledge Needed for Cross-Cultural Social Work Knowledge of SelfNo substitute for self-awarenessKnowledge of DifferencesCultural factorsOther background factorsHistory of client groupLanguage of client group
8Ethnic-Sensitive Practice Seeks to incorporate understanding of diverse ethnic, cultural, and minority groups into the theories and principles that guide social work practice.Based on the view that practice must be attuned to the values and dispositions related to clients’ ethnic group membership and social-class position.Requires social workers have an in-depth understanding of the effects of oppression on racial and ethnic groups.
9Ethnic-Sensitive Practice All people are part of two systems (the dual-perspective):Dominant system which is the source of power and economic resourcesNurturing system composed of the physical and social environment of family and community.
10Ethnic-Sensitive Practice Social workers have an obligation to be aware of and to seek to redress the oppression experienced by ethnic groups.Introduces no new practice principles or approaches. It urges adaptation of prevailing therapies, social work principles, and skills to account of ethnic reality.
11Ethnic-Sensitive Practice Regardless of which practice approach is used, empowerment and the strengths perspective should be emphasized.
12Ethnic-Sensitive Practice Empowerment: The process of helping people increase their personal, interpersonal, socioeconomic, and political strength and influence toward improving their circumstances. It counters hopelessness, powerlessness, oppression and poverty.
13Ethnic-Sensitive Practice Strengths Perspective: Seeks to identity, use, build, and reinforce individuals’ abilities and strengths, emphasizing their interests, aspirations, resources, beliefs, and accomplishments. This is in contrast to the pathological perspective, which focuses on deficiencies.
14Macro Strategies to Promote Social Justice Social programsMass media appealsCivil rights lawsActivismSchool busingAffirmative action programsMinority-owned businessesConfronting jokes and actionsGrassroots approaches to improving inner cities
15SourceZastrow, C. (2003). The practice of social work. Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Learning.