Biodiversity of the Amazon Estimation 1 million different species of plants and animals in Amazon Unique Plants and animals no where else
Biodiversity of the Amazon…Plants Half of the remaining rain forest on earth One hectare of forest near Manaus 300 different types of trees Catalogued 50,000 plants 20% of the world’s total
Biodiversity of the Amazon…Animals One tree 163 species of beetles Thus far catalogued 2500 snakes species 2000 fish Comparison: Mississippi River has 250 1500 birds
Biodiversity of the Amazon…People Indigenous peoples Historically considered sparse However, evidence shows migrants in area from 10,000- 14,000 years ago By 1500s, populations denser than today Then the Iberians came… Importance in the Sustainable Development argument
Brazil and the Environment Constitution (Title VIII) Dedicated to Environmental Protection Right belongs to all Does not belong to government National Environmental Policy Act of 1981 Not first, but set the ball rolling Established principles, goals
Brazilian Environmental Orgs. Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) created in 1989 The national Brazilian Ministry of the Environment’s enforcement agency Instituto de Protección Ambiental de Amazonas (IPAAM) Executes the State Politics of Environment of the State of Amazonas
Manaus Though the numbers were large, no indigenous civilization had sizable villages in Amazonia. Today, Manaus has 2 million people, a population that tripled in size in the last twenty-five years. Approximately the size of Houston, the fourth largest city in the United States.
Manaus History Became a major player in the world due to rubber exports as the Amazon was the main supplier. “Paris of the tropics” However, with synthetic rubber, their power waned.
Teatro Amazonas “Grand ideas gone awry” Completed in 1896 As rubber fell, so did condition. Recently remodeled
Splendid Isolation? Two roads N. to state of Roraima and Venezuela S. road washed away in ’80s, in disrepair. Rebuilt? Most born in Manaus never venture far, if at all.
Amazonia as a Whole Manaus is important…we’ll return. But overall, the Amazon region has experienced the highest urban growth rates in Brazil. 1970, urban population comprised 35.5% of the total population. 44.6%: 1980 58%: 1991 61%: 1996 68%: 2000
Population growth and Urbanization = MORE ENERGY! Pipelines Hydroplants Deforestation Roads Progress? Go West, Young Man
Energy Shortage of 2001 Since 1993, increases in: Energy generating capacity 3% Consumption 5% But… there was a lack of planning and lower investments in energy… And a drought which effected the hydropower which supplied Brazil with 87% of its electric energy.
Energy Shortage of 2001 Rationing and Rainfall Still risk of deficit Projected Shortfall of 20K to 44K MW Policy directives that emerged: Increased hydropower generation Expansion of use of natural gas Which includes the creation of two pipelines
Energy Independence. Automobile edition A short segue… Ethanol/Gasoline Oil shocks of ’70s began move However, oil still 85% of gas usage Most efforts to improve efficency Increase production Oil production has most significant contribution to energy independence.
Manaus and Energy Independence Rolling blackouts Holding back employment expansion Slowed factory construction “If people want development that preserves the environment, we have to have energy. It’s no good people saying the Amazon has to be the sanctuary of humanity and forget there are twenty million people living there.”
President Lula da Silva Development agenda Social Participation Sustainable development National Environmental System Integrated Environmental Policy Coordinating actions Progress?
Exploration in the Amazon? Most of the oil comes from off of the shores of Rio de Janeiro
Solimões Basin Jurua gas province Urucu oil province In December 2000, proved reserves and total reserves, for the state of Amazonas, corresponded to approximately 129 million and 157 million barrels of oil and 44 billion and 88 billion m3 of natural gas.
Where is this basin? And here is why we return to Manaus…
The Urucu Gas Reserve Small scale since its discovery in 1986 Solved solution of supplying energy to Manaus and the Western Amazon
Now We Need Pipelines! North from Coari to Manaus 417 km (259 miles) South from Urucu to Porto Velho 538 km (334 miles) Cost: $875 million Decreases generation costs in Manaus to $30/MW/hr Current costs: $100/MW/hr IL: 6.69¢/MW/hr
The Producers Petrobras, the semi- public Brazilian oil company rallied support in The Government Funders in the private sector Petrobras avoided public discussion of alternatives, insisted on pipelines
Fears of the opposers Building Roads = deforestation Water pollution Increased river traffic Migration Point out that the reserves exhausted in 15 years, leaving behind irreversible impacts
What they were afraid of: The Completed Urucu-Coari Pipeline Completed in 1998 Blocked three streams used for drinking water and bathing Fish populations said to have fallen dramatically Animals will not cross pipelines Cut down fruit and nut trees Combined many food sources eliminated
How the Urucu-Coari Pipeline works Pumped to Coari Loaded onto tankers for a 16 hr. journey to Manaus 2 nd pipeline Moved cooking gas, also sent by boat Output: 16,000 barrels of oil per day 353 million ft 3 of natural gas
The Calvary Arrives A media campaign in 1999 against the project began By 2001, the attorney general of the State of Amazonas and the Amazonas state government joined the opposition. Lawsuit!
Lawsuits – 2001 (Coari-Manaus) Alleged that the preliminary environmental license for pipelines did not fulfill legal requirements Did not provide enough to describe impacts on the environment No alternatives presented No cost/benefit analysis NEPA? EIS? Lawsuit led to public hearings (2002)
More Lawsuits – 2003 (both) Again Brought by Govt. Suspension of the temp. licenses Request accepted Gave IPAAM Coari-Manaus Gave IBAMA Urucu-Porto Velho Stopped construction from Apr. 2003 to May 2004.
May 2004: An Agreement Governor agreed with Petrobras Gaspetro (branch of Petrobras) must establish a fund of $3.3 million to: Mitigate impact of Urucu-Porto Velho “Sustainable development” program for Coari- Manaus Agreement removed lawsuit IPAAM gave go-ahead for Coari-Manaus
Why did the Government Give Up? Strong support for the project Jobs Political powers like the idea Governor wanted to lower energy costs to increase support in private sector But the project is still slow going with plans to start in 2007.
Urucu: Progress in Harmony with Nature “We want to make the smallest footprint we can.” No roads into Urucu, must be barged in 1800 workers come and go on 3-day flights Resembles a military base Wastewater treated Trash recycled, sent to Manaus Plant nursery
Plan for the Pipelines Built on same principles as Urucu facility A small slit of forest without an access road Helicopter pads along the way for maintenance.
Concerns still present Degradation of Rivers and Streams Urban to Rural Migration Oil brings modern “civilization” Purus/Madeira Jurua Tropical Moist Forest Highly biodiverse areas affected Abufari Biological Reserve Aiapua Lake Environmental Protection Area
Purus/Madeira Moist forest between Purus and Madeira Rivers Very diverse 160 species of mammals 570 species of birds Also threatened by deforestation and cattle ranching
Jurua Tropical Moist Forest Evergreen tropical rain forest Super-high floristic diversity High diversity of timber species 171 species of mammal (121 at mouth of the Urucu River) 554 species of birds including toucans Currently no roads But regular deforestation due to oil/NG
Abufari Biological Reserve Established to control fisheries Protect endangered species Manatees Podocnemis turtles Model of sustainable development
Aiapua Lake Environmental Protection Area Flooded forest 681 birds species Over 200 mammal species Some species restricted to wetland areas Fruit that fruit-eating fish consume Long history of human occupation Lies on edge of this region Of few restricted areas in region
In the end… Progress may run over these regions Just how safe can any pipeline construction be? No matter the pledges. Sustainable Development “Gas will give us the energy to allow industry to grow in Manaus. Gas will give us the energy in small towns to improve their quality of life. Gas will give us the money to do the other things, to improve social services here and to have programs to develop the rest of the state in a way that protects the environment.” - Governor Braga of Amazonas
And Yes, The Dolphin Should Be Pink In a traditional Amazon River myth, at night a Boto becomes a handsome young man who seduces girls, impregnates them, then returns to the river in the morning to become a Boto again. A Boto The color varies from grey to pink A vulnerable species
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