Biodiversity (a) 4500 Species of plant (not all identified yet. 30 unique to SI 163 species birds (44 unique to SI) 35 of 130 species of butterfly unique to SI 90% of Islands are Rich Tropical Rain Forests 6% is mangerove swamp with wide range of plants and animals – many are unique to SI
Organisations (b) Indigenous – slash and burn and using forest resources – sustain forest Other local subsistence farmers – cut forest down for farmland (conflict to tribes) Outside aid e.g. US encouraging cash based farming. May lead to debt – and importing subsidised US rice (as in Haiti) Scientific research would support sustainable use of forest w/o deforestation Oil palm plantations (foreign MNCs) encourage massive deforestation Ecotourism could be sustainable – if small scale and quality tourists not mass market Logging by TNCs not sustainable Mass Market Tourism exploitative and destructive Sustainability decreases
Impacts Social End of subsistence farming – birth of cash based economy Improved water supplies improved health – faster population growth People lose land and become low paid workers People gain interest in material goods – may lead to population growth Loss of what was good in old culture – care for elderly etc. cf case studies of impacts on Amazonian Tribes Environmental Large scale deforestation Growth of plantations – increased rats – reduced fauna and birds. Deforestation to soil erosion, soil quality degradation, local climate change, contribution to global warming Reduced biodiversity
Problems Debt – borrow money in loans from MEDCs – if schemes not successful leads to debt issues – cut backs in Education and Health Environmental issues – deforestation – displaced indigenous peoples Local food producers out of business – migrate to towns – urban poverty – rapid rural – urban migration Cf Haiti Neo-colonialism if overdependent on foreign TNCs – profits go abroad. Leave SI if economic circumstance change. Own people trapped in low pay. Damage to environment FSC issues for timber. Soil erosion. Illegal logging Destruction to fauna and Flora Long term need to educate second generation workforce. Issues like with Amazon Tribe of maintaining local culture and values If forest resources are lost what will the economy be based on longer term? Carefully develop ecotourism and research – needs strong government control Population Control is essential if major problems to be avoided. Risk of overpopulation leading to rainforest destruction.