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T HE G UMBALL R OLL Created by Treshonda Rutledge, FCR-STEM Summer Institute (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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ALGEBRA S TANDARDS (C OMMON C ORE ) MAFS.912.A-CED.1.2 : Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. Domain: Statistics & Probability: Interpreting Categorical & Quantitative Data Cluster: Interpret linear models - Algebra 1 - Major Cluster Content Complexity/Depth of Knowledge: Level 2 (Basic Application of Concepts & Skills) (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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PHYSICAL SCIENCE S TANDARDS (NGSSS) SC.912.P A: Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. When objects travel at speeds comparable to the speed of light, Einstein's special theory of relativity applies. Content Complexity/Depth of Knowledge: Level 3 (Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning) ) (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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L EARNING O BJECTIVES Construct and analyze graphs of motion from a set of data in two variables Identify and calculate slopes of lines from graphs of motion Recognize and explain how the slope of a line describes the motion of a real world object Write a linear equation in slope-intercept form and point slope form that models real-world data derived from a graph Write an equation of a line that models data and/or use it to make predictions. Calculate the speed of an object using the speed formula (v= d/t) Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position (with respect to a frame of reference) as a function of time. Solve problems involving distance and speed. Create and interpret linear graphs of 1-dimensional motion, such as distance versus time given: a table of values, the x- and the y-intercepts, two points, a point and the slope, or the equation of the line. (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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PREPARATION PREPARATION T O C REATE R AMP (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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PREPARATION PREPARATION M ATERIALS N EEDED PER SETUP : ( RECOMMEND 1 SETUP FOR EACH GROUP OF 3-4 STUDENTS.) One.12 m x 1.2 m Plywood Strip Two 1.2 m Wooden Dowels I recommend square dowels but round will work. Meter sticks could be used as well. Wood Glue or Hot Glue Gun Permanent Marker (to denote intervals) Masking Tape could be used to mark intervals as well. Flat Surface (table) Gumballs no greater than 3cm diameter May substitute any round candy for gumballs Stopwatch or Timer 5-6 Textbooks of equal height. (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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PRIOR KNOWLEDGE Before completing this lesson, students should know: How to calculate slope and manipulate the slope formula Basic graphing skills How to solve a 2-step equation How to take measurements (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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A SSESSMENTS Formative Assessments Teacher Observation Teacher walks from group to group observing and posing guiding questions to students. W.G.O. Cards (What’s going on?) Index Cards work great for this. Teacher includes 2 or more index cards in lab kit. WGO Card 1: What question do you have at this point? WGO Card 2: What interesting observation can you share at this point? Teacher can throw as many WGO cards in at different points in the lab. Student groups do not have to all stop to answer at one time. WGO cards should be placed at specific intervals throughout the lab. (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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A SSESSMENTS Summative Assessments Lab Report (Included) Specific assessment of student mastery of concept. Throughout the lab, specific questions are included to gauge mastery of objectives. Each student should complete his/her own report and should record his/her data. See rubric. Exit Slip (Suggestions) Could be given using clickers, pen and paper, index cards, etc. One similar scenario to be answered individually. See Exit Slip (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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G UIDING Q UESTIONS What are possible conditions that affect the speed of an object? How can speed and velocity be represented on a graph? How can you distinguish between speed and velocity? (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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F EEDBACK TO S TUDENTS WGO Cards Students should be completing WGO cards throughout the lab. Teacher should walk around and discuss the WGO Cards with the groups. Teacher should try not to answer the WGO Question card with a direct answer but with guiding questions instead. Teacher observation of Data Teacher should be constantly visiting each group throughout lab, posing H.O.T. (Higher Order Thinking) questions or leading questions for students. (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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POE (P REDICT, O BSERVE, E XPLAIN ) The teacher should guide the students through every phase of the POE. For the Predict phase, the teacher should lead the students through a demonstration to the point where they have just enough information to formalize a prediction. The teacher should not give a full demonstration until after the students have made predictions. The Observe phase takes place right after students have made predictions. The teacher now gives a full demonstration, after which, students should record their observations. The last phase is the Explain phase. The teacher should not give an explanation but allow the students to explain their predictions. POE Student Worksheet POE Teacher Notes (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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E XPERIMENTATION /L AB Student Lab Worksheet Teacher Notes (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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L AB S AFETY Review a Lab Safety Slide via Power Point Provide a Lab Safety Sheet with the Lab (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved NO running in the lab Rulers, ramps and lab equipment must not be played with or destructed Gumballs are considered lab equipment DO NOT EAT

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T HE G UMBALL R OLL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2GI7ih3rWc (c) Copyright 2014 All rights reserved

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