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**Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

Chapter Preview 1.1 What Is Physical Science? 1.2 Scientific Inquiry 1.3 Measurement 1.4 Mathematics and Science 1.5 Graphs in Science 1.6 Science Laboratory Safety

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**Chapter Preview Questions**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Chapter Preview Questions 1. To perform tests, collect data, and display data, scientists must a. revise a hypothesis. b. study physics and chemistry. c. use appropriate tools and technology. d. consult reference materials.

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**Chapter Preview Questions**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Chapter Preview Questions 1. To perform tests, collect data, and display data, scientists must a. revise a hypothesis. b. study physics and chemistry. c. use appropriate tools and technology. d. consult reference materials.

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**Chapter Preview Questions**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Chapter Preview Questions 2. To present their results, scientists a. read scientific journals. b. take courses in public speaking. c. use the World Wide Web. d. make connections that link their hypotheses, tests, data, and conclusions.

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**Chapter Preview Questions**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Chapter Preview Questions 2. To present their results, scientists a. read scientific journals. b. take courses in public speaking. c. use the World Wide Web. d. make connections that link their hypotheses, tests, data, and conclusions.

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**Chapter Preview Questions**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Chapter Preview Questions 3. When scientists use their observations to suggest an explanation, they are a. developing a hypothesis. b. gathering data. c. recording data. d. designing an experiment.

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**Chapter Preview Questions**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Chapter Preview Questions 3. When scientists use their observations to suggest an explanation, they are a. developing a hypothesis. b. gathering data. c. recording data. d. designing an experiment.

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**Chapter Preview Questions**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Chapter Preview Questions 4. Scientists analyze their observations and data to a. develop a hypothesis. b. determine whether their evidence supports their hypothesis. c. design experiments. d. advance scientific knowledge.

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**Chapter Preview Questions**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Chapter Preview Questions 4. Scientists analyze their observations and data to a. develop a hypothesis. b. determine whether their evidence supports their hypothesis. c. design experiments. d. advance scientific knowledge.

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**Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

How do scientists investigate the natural world? Suppose you want to test whether sugar dissolves more quickly in cold water or hot water. How would you find out? How would you know if your answer is reliable?

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**Section 1: What is Physical Science?**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Section 1: What is Physical Science? California Content Standards: 8.9 Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. Objectives: Explain what physical science involves. Identify skills that scientists use to learn about the natural world.

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**What is Physical Science?**

Questions/Terms Answers/Definitions What skills do scientists use to learn about the world? Observing: Inferring: Predicting: Scientists use the skills of observing, inferring, and predicting to learn more about the natural world. Using one or more senses to gather information To reason from what you already know Making a forecast of what will happen based on past experience and current information

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**What is Physical Science?**

Questions/Terms Answers/Definitions What do physical scientists study? Two Branches of Physical Science Chemistry: Physics: Physical scientists study matter, energy, and the changes they undergo. The study of the properties of matter and how matter changes The study of matter, energy, motion, and forces, and how they interact.

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**What is Physical Science?**

What are the 4 concepts that unify the physical sciences? force and energy; the laws of conservation; atoms, molecules, and the atomic theory; and the behavior of particles of matter in solids, liquids, and gases.

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**Section 2: Scientific Inquiry**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Section 2: Scientific Inquiry California Content Standards: a Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis c Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test. Objectives: Describe how scientists investigate the natural world. Explain the roles of models, laws, and theories in science.

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**The Nature of Inquiry Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

There is no set path that a scientific inquiry must follow. Different scientists may choose different paths when studying the same event.

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Scientific Inquiry Questions/Terms How do scientists investigate the natural world? Scientific Inquiry Answers/Definitions Scientists use the process of inquiry, which includes posing questions, developing hypotheses, designing experiments, collecting and interpreting data, drawing conclusions, and communicating ideas and results. The ongoing process of discovery in science

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Scientific Inquiry Questions/Terms Hypothesis Parameter Manipulated Variable Responding Variable Answers/Definitions A possible answer to a scientific question or explanation for a set of observations. A factor that can be measured in an experiment The variable parameter that is purposely changed in an experiment The variable parameter that is expected to change because of the manipulated variable

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Scientific Inquiry Questions/Terms Controlled Experiment Data What role do models, theories, and laws play in science? Answers/Definitions An investigation in which only one parameter is manipulated at a time The facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations Scientists use models and develop theories and laws to increase people’s understanding of the natural world.

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**Questions/Terms Model Scientific Theory Scientific Law**

Scientific Inquiry Questions/Terms Model Scientific Theory Scientific Law Answers/Definitions A picture, diagram, computer image, or other representation of an object or process A well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results A statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions

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**Section 3: Measurement Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

California Content Standards: 8.8.a Students know density is mass per unit volume. 8.8.b Students know how to calculate the density of substances (regular and irregular solids and liquids) from measurements of mass and volume. Objectives: Explain why scientists use a standard measurement system. Identify the SI units of measure for length, mass, volume, density, time, and temperature.

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**A Standard Measurement System**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science A Standard Measurement System Why do scientists use a standard measurement system? Using SI as the standard system of measurement allows scientists to compare data and communicate with each other about their results. SI units are based on multiples of 10.

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**A Standard Measurement System**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science A Standard Measurement System

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**A Standard Measurement System**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science A Standard Measurement System What are the SI units of measure for length, mass, volume, density, time, and temperature? Length is measured in meters (m)

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**A Standard Measurement System**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science A Standard Measurement System Mass - The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). Volume - The SI unit of volume is the cubic meter (m3).

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**Calculating Density Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

Suppose that a metal object has a mass of 57 g and a volume of 21 cm3. Calculate its density. Read and Understand What information are you given? Mass of metal object = 57 g Volume of metal object = 21 cm3

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**Calculating Density Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

Suppose that a metal object has a mass of 57 g and a volume of 21 cm3. Calculate its density. Plan and Solve What quantity are you trying to calculate? The density of the metal object = __ What formula contains the given quantities and the unknown quantity? Density = Mass/Volume Perform the calculation. Density = Mass/Volume = 57 g/21 cm3 = 2.7 g/cm3

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**Calculating Density Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

Suppose that a metal object has a mass of 57 g and a volume of 21 cm3. Calculate its density. Look Back and Check Does your answer make sense? The answer tells you that the metal object has a density of 2.7 g/cm3. The answer makes sense because it is the same as the density of a known metal–aluminum.

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**Calculating Density Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

Practice Problem What is the density of a wood block with a mass of 57 g and a volume of 125 cm3? 0.46 g/cm3

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**Calculating Density Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

Practice Problem What is the density of a liquid with a mass of 45 g and a volume of 48 mL? 0.94 g/mL

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**Density Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

Because density is actually made up of two other measurements–mass and volume–an object’s density is expressed as a combination of two units. The density of a substance stays the same no matter how large or small a sample of the substance is.

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**A Standard Measurement System**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science A Standard Measurement System Time - The second (s) is the SI unit of time. Temperature - Scientists use the Celsius and Kelvin scales to measure temperature. The kelvin (K) is the SI unit of temperature.

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**Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

Temperature

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**Section 4: Mathematics and Science**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Section 4: Mathematics and Science California Content Standards: 8.9.b Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data.

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**Section 4: Mathematics and Science**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Section 4: Mathematics and Science What math skills do scientists use in collecting data and making measurements? Estimate Accuracy Scientists use the skill of estimation and the basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. An approximation of a number based on reasonable assumptions How close a measurement is to the true or actual value

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**Section 4: Mathematics and Science**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Section 4: Mathematics and Science Reproducibility Significant Figures Precision How close a group of measurements are to each other All of the digits that have been measured exactly, plus one digit whose value has been estimated. A measure of the exactness of a measurement

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**Using Significant Figures**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Using Significant Figures Adding or Subtracting Example: When you add or subtract measurements, the answer should have the same number of decimal places as the measurement with the least number of decimal places. 5.3 cm (1 decimal place) cm (2 decimal places) cm ≈ 27.2 (1 decimal place)

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**Using Significant Figures**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Using Significant Figures Multiplying or Dividing Example: When multiplying or dividing measurements, the answer should have the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the least number of significant figures m (3 significant figures) X 3 m (1 significant figure) 6.75 sq. m ≈ 7 sq. meters (1 significant figure)

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**Area Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

To find the area of a surface, multiply its length by its width. Suppose a sheet of paper measures 27.5 cm by 21.6 cm. Area = 27.5 cm x 21.6 cm = 594 cm2 Practice Problem What is the area of a ticket stub that measures 3.5 cm by 2.2 cm? 3.5 cm x 2.2 cm = 7.7 cm2

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**Section 5: Graphs in Science**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Section 5: Graphs in Science California Content Standards: 8.9.d Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in a relationship y = kx and apply this principle in interpreting graphs constructed from data. 8.9.g Distinguish between linear and nonlinear relationships on a graph of data.

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**Section 5: Graphs in Science**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Section 5: Graphs in Science Line graphs are used to display data to show how one variable (the responding variable) changes in response to another variable (the manipulated variable) A line of best fit should have the same number of points above the line as below the line. What type of data can line graphs display? How do you determine a line of best fit or the slope of a graph?

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**Section 5: Graphs in Science**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Section 5: Graphs in Science Why are line graphs powerful tools in science? Line graphs are powerful tools in science because they allow you to identify trends and make predictions.

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**Slope Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

The slope of a graph line tells you how much y changes for every change in x.

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**Car Travel Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

The graph shows the distance a car travels in a one-hour period. Use the graph to answer the questions that follow.

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**Car Travel Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Reading Graphs:**

What variable is plotted on the horizontal axis? The vertical axis? Time (min), the manipulated variable, is plotted on the horizontal axis. Distance (km), the responding variable, is plotted on the vertical axis.

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**Car Travel Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

Interpreting Data: How far does the car travel in the first 10 minutes? In 40 minutes? The car travels 10 km in 10 minutes and 40 km in 40 minutes.

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**Car Travel Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Predicting:**

Use the graph to predict how far the car would travel in 120 minutes. Assume the car continues to travel at the same speed. The car is traveling 1 km per minute. It would travel 120 km in 120 minutes.

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**Car Travel Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Calculating:**

Calculate the slope of the graph. What information does the slope provide? The slope is 1 km/min. The slope provides information about the car’s average speed.

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**Section 6: Science Laboratory Safety**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Section 6: Science Laboratory Safety California Content Standards: Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.

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**Section 6: Science Laboratory Safety**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Section 6: Science Laboratory Safety Why is preparation important when carrying out scientific investigations in the lab and in the field? What should you do if an accident occurs? Good preparation helps you stay safe when doing science activities in the laboratory and in the field. When any accident occurs, no matter how minor, notify your teacher immediately. Then listen to your teacher’s directions and carry them out quickly.

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**Safety in the Lab Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

These safety symbols remind you to work carefully when performing labs in this textbook series. Make sure you are familiar with each safety symbol and what it means.

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**In Case of an Accident Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science**

When any accident occurs, no matter how minor, notify your teacher immediately. Then listen to your teacher’s directions and carry them out quickly.

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