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Anita Woolfolk Hoy The Ohio State University Conceptualizing Excellence in Teaching.

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Presentation on theme: "Anita Woolfolk Hoy The Ohio State University Conceptualizing Excellence in Teaching."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Anita Woolfolk Hoy The Ohio State University Conceptualizing Excellence in Teaching

3 Overview Pre-Service Teachers in Taiwan Excellent Teaching=Student Learning Research and models Junior High: Engagement, Motivation High School: Adaptive Teaching

4 Pre-Service Teachers Wang, H. H. (2012). Adaptive and motivated: Psychological qualities of college students in teacher education programs in Taiwan. British Educational Research Journal, 38, 655–675. Wang, H. H. (2012). Adaptive and motivated: Psychological qualities of college students in teacher education programs in Taiwan. British Educational Research Journal, 38, 655–675.

5 2005 IHEDS National survey: 2349 pre-service teachers, 2349 not Self-report, 35-item Likert scale: “I am good at persuading others. “I feel confident.” “I am lonely and isolated.” “I do not cut class.” Results: Pre-service teachers: Better oral communication and interpersonal skills More open to diverse values and opinions Higher levels of self-esteem Lower levels of social isolation and depression More committed to academic work and future career Ready to become excellent teachers. What does that mean?

6 Excellent Teaching Early Research Rice (1897): Teaching spelling Barak Rosenshine and Norma Furst (1973) Teacher Knowledge: Content and (today) Pedagogical Content Knowledge (learning) Teacher Clarity and Organization (learning) Teacher Warmth and Enthusiasm (liking, engagement)

7 Excellent Teaching: Current Models and Conceptualizations Social-Relational Academic Optimism Robert Pianta and the CLASS model Instructional Charlotte Danielson’s Framework for Teaching TeacherWorks: 19 High-Leverage Practices Understanding by Design (Wiggins & Tighe)

8 Importance of Relationships Interactions with adults are the scaffold for school success in: Self‐regulation, emotional self‐control, task orientation, persistence, motivation, engagement Self‐regulation, emotional self‐control, task orientation, persistence, motivation, engagement Cognitive outcomes, language, academic knowledge Cognitive outcomes, language, academic knowledge Instruction is, in part, a social process: Interactions with teachers are a (not only) “medium” Interactions with teachers are a (not only) “medium” Excellent teaching is embedded in relationships and interactions Excellent teaching is embedded in relationships and interactions Interactions operate across all content

9 Two Examples of the Importance of Relationships Longitudinal studies : Research by Robert Pianta and Colleagues Quality of the teacher–student relationship in kindergarten predicted academic and behavioral outcomes through the 8th grade (Hamre & Pianta 2001) Quality of the teacher–student relationship in kindergarten predicted academic and behavioral outcomes through the 8th grade (Hamre & Pianta 2001) Higher-level (not just basic skills) instruction and positive relationships with teachers  increased math achievement for lower achievers (Crosnoe et al., 2010). Higher-level (not just basic skills) instruction and positive relationships with teachers  increased math achievement for lower achievers (Crosnoe et al., 2010).

10 Academic Optimism Hoy, W. K. (2012). School characteristics that make a difference for the achievement of all students: A 40-year academic odyssey. Journal of Educational Administration, 50, Hoy, W. K. (2012). School characteristics that make a difference for the achievement of all students: A 40-year academic odyssey. Journal of Educational Administration, 50, Relational variables? Relational variables?

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12 CLASS: Classroom Assessment Scoring System™ Dimensions of Successful Classrooms Remember--Interactions with adults are the scaffold for school success. Those interactions create: Emotional support Emotional support Instructional support Instructional support Classroom organization Classroom organization

13 Climate DimensionComponentsDefinitions and Examples Emotional Support Positive ClimateWarmth, mutual respect, positive emotional connections between teacher and students Negative Climate (negative predictor of learning) Disrespect, anger, hostility Teacher SensitivityConsistency and effectiveness in responding to students’ academic and emotional needs Regard for Students’ Perspectives Activities encourage student autonomy and emphasize students’ interests, motivations, and points of view Instructional Support Concept DevelopmentActivities and discussion promote higher-order thinking skills and cognition Quality of FeedbackConsistency in providing specific, process-oriented feedback and back-and-forth exchanges to extend students’ learning Classroom Organization Behavior ManagementTeachers’ effectiveness in monitoring, preventing, and redirecting misbehavior ProductivityHow consistently learning is maximized with clear activities and routines, teacher preparation, efficient transitions, and minimal disruptions

14 See also Brown, J. L., Jones, S. M., LaRusso, M. D., & Aber, J. L. (2010). Improving classroom quality: Teacher influences and experimental impacts of the 4Rs Program. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 153–167. See also Brown, J. L., Jones, S. M., LaRusso, M. D., & Aber, J. L. (2010). Improving classroom quality: Teacher influences and experimental impacts of the 4Rs Program. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 153–167.

15 Instructional Charlotte Danielson Instructional Framework for Teaching Charlotte Danielson (2013) “identifies those aspects of a teacher’s responsibilities that have been documented through empirical studies and theoretical research as promoting improved student learning. While the Framework is not the only possible description of practice, these responsibilities seek to define what teachers should know and be able to do in the exercise of their profession” (p. 3) “identifies those aspects of a teacher’s responsibilities that have been documented through empirical studies and theoretical research as promoting improved student learning. While the Framework is not the only possible description of practice, these responsibilities seek to define what teachers should know and be able to do in the exercise of their profession” (p. 3)

16 Divides the complex task of teaching into the 22 components below, clustered into 4 domains of teaching responsibility: Planning and Preparing Classroom Environment Instruction Professional Responsibilities

17 Teacher Works National US project based at the University of Michigan National US project based at the University of Michigan National US project based at the University of Michigan National US project based at the University of Michigan With teachers, identified “a set of ‘best bets,’ warranted by research evidence, wisdom of practice, and logic.” With teachers, identified “a set of ‘best bets,’ warranted by research evidence, wisdom of practice, and logic.” With teachers, identified With teachers, identified Specific  can be taught and observed Specific  can be taught and observed Specific  can be taught and observed Specific  can be taught and observed leverage-practices leverage-practices leverage-practices leverage-practices

18 TeacherWorks 19 High-Leverage Teaching Practices 1. Making content (e.g., specific texts, problems, ideas, theories, processes) explicit through explanation, modelling, representations, and examples 2. Leading a whole-class discussion 3. Eliciting and interpreting individual students’ thinking 4. Establishing norms and routines for classroom discourse and work that are central to the subject-matter domain 5. Recognizing particular common patterns of student thinking and development in a subject-matter domain 6. Identifying and implementing an instructional response or strategy in response to common patterns of student thinking 7. Teaching a lesson or segment of instruction 8. Implementing organizational routines, procedures, and strategies to support a learning environment

19 9. Setting up and managing small group work 10. Engaging in strategic relationship-building conversations with student 11. Setting long- and short-term learning goals for students referenced to external benchmarks 12. Appraising, choosing, and modifying tasks and texts for a specific learning goal 13. Designing a sequence of lessons toward a specific learning goal 14. Selecting and using particular methods to check understanding and monitor student learning during and across lessons 15. Composing, selecting, and interpreting and using information from quizzes, tests, and other methods of summative assessment 16. Providing oral and written feedback to students on their work 17. Communicating about a student with a parent or guardian 18. Analyzing instruction for the purpose of improving it 19. Communicating with other professionals

20 Thinking about Planning Understanding by Design Understanding by Design Wiggins and Tighe (2006) Wiggins and Tighe (2006) Avoids the “twin sins” of planning Avoids the “twin sins” of planning Backwards design  Backwards design  from big ideas and essential questions from big ideas and essential questions to evidence of understanding to evidence of understanding to teaching plan to teaching plan

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22 Junior High 1. How do teachers design learning environments and lessons to capture and hold student interest and encourage cognitive investment? 1. How do teachers design learning environments and lessons to capture and hold student interest and encourage cognitive investment? 2. How do teachers help students become more self-regulating? 2. How do teachers help students become more self-regulating? Relationships: Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., Oort, F. J. (2011). What else? What can teachers do?

23 On TARGETT for Learning Task motivation Task motivation Autonomy Autonomy Rewards Rewards Grouping Grouping Evaluation & feedback Evaluation & feedback Time for learning Time for learning Teacher expectations Teacher expectations

24 Tasks for Learning Task value Task value Attainment value: tied to needs/identity Attainment value: tied to needs/identity Intrinsic or interest value Intrinsic or interest value Utility value/reach goals--> future Utility value/reach goals--> future Authentic tasks Authentic tasks Problem-based learning Problem-based learning Task operations: Task operations: risk & ambiguity

25 Doyle’s Task Operations RISK AMBIGUITY Comprehension Opinion Difficult memory or difficult routine Difficult memory or difficult routine Simple memory or simple routine Simple memory or simple routine Low High Low

26 Supporting Autonomy Student choices Student choices Bounded choices Bounded choices Student choice on feedback Student choice on feedback

27 Recognizing Accomplishments Authentic praise, specific and justified Authentic praise, specific and justified Personal improvement Personal improvement Cautions for use of rewards! Cautions for use of rewards!

28 Grouping Goal structures Individualistic Individualistic Competitive Competitive Cooperative Cooperative Jigsaw Jigsaw Inquiry Inquiry Numbered Heads Numbered Heads Think/Pair/Share Think/Pair/Share

29 Evaluation & Time Effects of evaluation Emphasize learning, not grades Self-evaluation Rationales and Rubrics Effects of time pressure Time for engagement Time pressure on tests

30 Teacher Expectations Self-fulfilling prophecy Self-fulfilling prophecy Sustaining expectation effect Sustaining expectation effect Sources of expectations Sources of expectations Tests Tests Family Family Reputations Reputations Who is affected and when? Who is affected and when?

31 Teacher Behaviors and Student Reactions Instructional strategies: Grouping, pacing, difficulty level Instructional strategies: Grouping, pacing, difficulty level Teacher-student interaction differences Teacher-student interaction differences Quality and quantity of questions Quality and quantity of questions Amount of time to answer Amount of time to answer Number of teacher interruptions Number of teacher interruptions Nonverbal behaviors Nonverbal behaviors

32 Strategies to Encourage Motivation and Thoughtful Learning

33 Organized classroom Organized classroom Free from interruptions Free from interruptions Safe-to-fail environment Safe-to-fail environment Challenging but reasonable work Challenging but reasonable work Authentic, worthwhile tasks Authentic, worthwhile tasks Necessary Classroom Conditions

34 Critical Student Questions Can I do it? Do I want to do it? What do I need to do to succeed? Do I belong in this class?

35 1. Can I do it? Building Confidence & Positive Expectations Match tasks to student ability level Match tasks to student ability level Move in small steps Move in small steps Clear, specific, attainable learning goals Clear, specific, attainable learning goals Stress self-comparison Stress self-comparison Communicate that academic ability can be improved Communicate that academic ability can be improved Model good problem solving Model good problem solving

36 2. Do I want to? Seeing the Value of Learning Older students: utility value, attainment value Older students: utility value, attainment value Younger students: intrinsic/interest value Younger students: intrinsic/interest value Intrinsic value Intrinsic value Tie class activities to student interests Tie class activities to student interests Arouse curiosity Arouse curiosity Make learning fun (if possible) Make learning fun (if possible) Use novelty and familiarity Use novelty and familiarity

37 Seeing the Utility Value of Learning: Explain connections Explain connections Provide incentives and rewards if needed Provide incentives and rewards if needed Authentic tasks: Authentic tasks: Ill-structured Ill-structured Real world problems Real world problems

38 3. Staying Focused on the Task Frequent assessments and opportunities to respond Frequent assessments and opportunities to respond Have students create finished products Have students create finished products Avoid heavy emphasis on grades and competition Avoid heavy emphasis on grades and competition Reduce task risk without oversimplifying the task Reduce task risk without oversimplifying the task Model motivation to learn Model motivation to learn Teach particular learning tactics Teach particular learning tactics 4. Do I Belong? Relationships

39 Beginning Teachers’ Motivation Strategies Newby, J. T. (1991). Classroom motivation: Strategies of first year teachers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83,

40 Resources

41 High School: Adapting Instruction Remember Relationships Remember Motivation Differentiated Instruction Flexible Grouping Joplin Plan Adaptive Teaching Matching support to student abilities and needs

42 Relationships and Motivation Mentoring

43 Ideas for Mentoring Take advantage of technology. Take advantage of technology. Establish “ pals” for students, with retired adults or successful former students as their mentors. Establish “ pals” for students, with retired adults or successful former students as their mentors. Download resources from NWREL’s National Mentoring Center, especially their school- based mentoring and tutoring materials (http://educationnorthwest.org/resource/360. Download resources from NWREL’s National Mentoring Center, especially their school- based mentoring and tutoring materials (http://educationnorthwest.org/resource/360.http://educationnorthwest.org/resource/360 Let students know you believe in them. Let students know you believe in them. Set standards high and give critical feedback, but also provide support and encouragement. Set standards high and give critical feedback, but also provide support and encouragement. Showcase accomplishments of former students. Showcase accomplishments of former students. Take the time to establish and maintain relationships. Take the time to establish and maintain relationships. Don’t expect trust right away; you may have to earn it. Don’t expect trust right away; you may have to earn it. Spend some time with students outside academics—before or after school, as part of clubs or extracurricular activities. Have some fun together. Find common interests. Spend some time with students outside academics—before or after school, as part of clubs or extracurricular activities. Have some fun together. Find common interests. If you set up a more formal mentoring system, be sure participants are trained and monitored. If you set up a more formal mentoring system, be sure participants are trained and monitored. Use materials from national mentor groups for training, for example, Elements of Effective Practice from MENTOR/National Mentoring Partnership Use materials from national mentor groups for training, for example, Elements of Effective Practice from MENTOR/National Mentoring Partnership Have regular times to provide training and to deal with problems that may arise. Have regular times to provide training and to deal with problems that may arise.

44 Flexible Grouping Form and re-form groups based on accurate diagnosis of students’ current performance in the subject being taught. Groupings can be across grades (Joplin Plan) Make sure different groups get appropriately different instruction, not just the same material. Make sure teachers, methods, and pace are adjusted to fit the group’s needs. Vary more than pace; fit teaching to students’ interests and knowledge. Assign all groups research reports, but have some be written, and others oral or PowerPoint presentations. Organize and teach groups so that low-achieving students get appropriate extra instruction—not just the same material again. Make lower achieving groups smaller so students get extra attention. Make sure all work is meaningful and respectful—no worksheets for lower ability groups while the higher ability groups do experiments and projects. Discourage comparisons between groups and encourage a whole-class spirit. Keep the number of groups small (two or three at most) so that you can provide as much direct teaching as possible—leaving students alone for too long leads to less learning.

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46 Bringing it All Together Lee, J., & Shute, V. J. (2010). Personal and social- contextual factors in K–12 academic performance: An integrative perspective on student learning, Educational Psychologist, 45, 185–202. Synthesis of 150 studies Synthesis of 150 studies Showing moderate to strong effect sizes linking personal/social factors to achievement. Showing moderate to strong effect sizes linking personal/social factors to achievement. 4 factors: 4 factors: Student engagement Student engagement Learning strategies Learning strategies School climate School climate Social-Family factors Social-Family factors

47 Student Personal Factors Student Engagement Examples Students’ BehaviorMake sure students attend classes, follow rules, participate in school activities. Students’ Minds and Motivations Design challenging tasks, tap intrinsic motivation, support student investment in learning, nurture student self-efficacy and other positive academic beliefs. Students’ EmotionsConnect to student interest, pique curiosity, foster a sense of belonging and class connections, diminish anxiety, and increase enjoyment in learning. Learning Strategies Examples Cognitive Strategies Directly teach knowledge and skills that support student learning and deep processing of valuable information (e.g., summarizing, inferring, applying, and reasoning). Metacognitive Strategies Directly teach students to monitor, regulate, and evaluate their own cognitive processes, strengths, and weaknesses as learners; teach them about when, where, why, and how to use specific strategies. Behavioral Strategies Directly teach students strategies and tactics for managing, monitoring, and evaluating their action, motivation, affect, and environment, such as skills in: time management, test taking, help-seeking, note-taking, homework management

48 Social-Contextual Factors School ClimateExamples Academic EmphasisSet high expectations for your students and encourage the whole school to do the same; emphasize positive relations with the school community. Teacher VariablesIf possible, teach in a school with the positive qualities of collective efficacy, teacher empowerment, sense of affiliation. Principal LeadershipIf possible, teach in a school with the positive qualities of collegiality, high morale, and clearly conveyed goals. Social-Familial Influences Examples Parental InvolvementSupport parents in supporting their children’s learning. Peer InfluencesCreate class and school norms that honor achievement, encourage peer support, and discourage peer conflict.

49 Other References Corno, L. (2008). On teaching adaptively. Educational Psychologist, 43, 161– 173. Crosnoe, R., Morrison, F., Burchinal, M., Pianta, R., Keating, D., Friedman, S. L., & Clarke-Stewart, K. A. (2010). Instruction, teacher–student relations, and math achievement trajectories in elementary school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 407–417. Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early teacher–child relationships and the trajectory of children’s school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development, 72, 625–638. Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher–student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach, Review of Educational Research, 81,


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