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The changing role of teachers: a historical account Kevin J. Brehony Roehampton University.

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Presentation on theme: "The changing role of teachers: a historical account Kevin J. Brehony Roehampton University."— Presentation transcript:

1 The changing role of teachers: a historical account Kevin J. Brehony Roehampton University

2 Teachers’ Social Identities ‘Social identities are ‘attributed or imputed to others in an attempt to place or situate them as social objects’(Snow & Anderson, 1987,p.1347).These are largely ‘imputations based primarily on information gleaned on the basis of appearance, behaviour, and the location and time of the action’. In the context of our research, we find the notion of an ‘assigned social identity’ (Ball, 1972) useful These are imputations based on ‘desired’ or ‘prescribed’ appearance, etc.’ (p. 89) Woods, P. and B. Jeffrey (2002). "The Reconstruction of Primary Teachers' Identities." British Journal of Sociology of Education 23(1): 89-106.

3 Structural Contexts of Imputations 1800-2005 Private - Civil Society - Market Trajectory Attenuated Bureaucratisation - Teachers as Semi Professionals - Bureau Professionals - New Managerialism Public - State - Limited (quasi) Market Trajectory Bureaucratisation - De-bureaucratisation- Teachers as Bureau Professionals-New Managerialism

4 Private Schools Public Schools - Nine ‘Great Public Schools’ (Clarendon, 1862) Headmasters' Conference (14 in 1869; 125 in 1914; 242 in 2000) Proprietary Schools- Run for profit, e.g. Marlborough College, GPDST Schools Endowed Grammar Schools Prep Schools Dame Schools New Schools e. g. Bedales Eton

5 Private Schools Until 1902 - Most of the Secondary Sector Secondary: a Social Class category until 1944 Until early C20th - Mainly single sex Teachers graduates but untrained and male Lightly regulated

6 State Secondary Schools Post 1902- Model Professionals Largely Male Graduates Largely autonomous- except for curriculum Hostile to elementary teachers’ professionalisation strategies Brinkburn Grammar

7 State (Public) Elementary Schools Denominational Schools After 1870, Board Schools Higher Grade Schools Pupil Teacher Centres Most Elementary Schools were decapitated and became Primary Schools after 1944 Board School

8 State (Public) Elementary Schools 1833 First Parliamentary Grant 1862 Revised Code 1895 Payment by Results abandoned (almost) 1926 Compulsory Curriculum abandoned Primary Curriculum shaped by 11+ 1988 Compulsory Curriculum Reinstated Seaton Delaval, Teachers 1895

9 Regulation C19th ‘Church’ teachers controlled by the clergyman who was chair of Board of Managers Individual examination of each child by HMI who was also a clergyman The Revised Code specified the curriculum Teaching unspecified except for infants Matthew Arnold (1822-88)

10 Grades of Elementary School Teachers C19th Pupil Teachers (1846): a closed system Certificated - training College, PT Centre, Correspondence Uncertificated, ‘Assistant Teachers’ Supplementary: ‘Article 68s’ Borough Road Training College 1805

11 Teachers’ Status 1800-1846 ‘the elementary schoolmaster is thought very little of; in fact, so much despised that men of respectable attainments will not undertake the office of schoolmaster’ (Crossley 1834 in Tropp :9) The majority had tried other trades and failed

12 Professionalising Strategies Open the Inspectorate to teachers Get MPs elected Eliminate the unqualified Gain graduate status ‘the organized thousands of the National Union of Teachers have aspirations toward that high intellectual plane which has come to be embodied in one word - “culture” Blacker 1901in (Tropp: 171) Alliance with the democratic bureaucratic State Aberaman 1894

13 Teachers’ Political Identities 1907 West Ham Strike- Council attempted to break the union and reduce wages Rhondda Strike 1919 - Teacher refused an instruction from HT Teachers Labour League (Mid 1920s) 1950 Communists banned in Middlesex 1970s Socialist Teacher, Rank and File 1984-6 Teachers’ strike over pay Burston School - teachers dismissed in 1914

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