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 The 13 North American colonies formed separately over 125 years  1 st – Virginia in 1607  Last – Georgia in 1733  Each colony was unique, and formed.

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Presentation on theme: " The 13 North American colonies formed separately over 125 years  1 st – Virginia in 1607  Last – Georgia in 1733  Each colony was unique, and formed."— Presentation transcript:


2  The 13 North American colonies formed separately over 125 years  1 st – Virginia in 1607  Last – Georgia in 1733  Each colony was unique, and formed out of different sets of circumstances  Each had a charter – written grant of authority (permission to govern) from the king

3 1. Royal Colonies 2. Proprietary Colonies 3. Charter Colonies

4  Controlled by the British crown (King)  King appointed a governor to run the colony  A council appointed by the king served as advisors to the governor  Had a bicameral legislature = 2 houses  Upper house = the governor’s advisors.  Lower house = elected by property owners who could vote

5  Organized by a proprietor (business owner) who had been given a grant by the king  Proprietor appointed the governor to run the colony  Most colonies were either Royal or Proprietary, or both at some point in time.

6  charter: a written document given to a colony granting it the right to govern.  The charter colonies had more freedom to govern than others  Governor elected by male landowners  3 colonies: Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts Bay


8  The pilgrims landed with no charter with rules or instructions on how to govern  So they drew up a social contract  Mayflower Compact (1620)  Pilgrims agreed to follow the rules in order to survive  Laid out rules of the colony  Signed by 41 of the original 101 passengers

9  Virginia House of Burgesses (1619)  First representative assembly (legislature) in the North American colonies  Met at a church in Jamestown, 1x per year  Governor was appointed by officials in London  Governor appointed his own 6-man council  Other 15 members of the legislature were elected by landowners

10  Britain = 3,000 mi (2 month boat ride) away  Before 1760, Britain did not concern itself much with the colonies  Colonies got used to self-government  Very few taxes collected from the colonies by the king  They could even control the royal governors –  Colonial legislatures had the “power of the purse”

11  1760: King George III takes the throne  England is at war over foreign territories ( French and Indian War )  Many colonists fought for Britain in this war

12  French-Indian War (aka 7 Years War) cost Britain lots of money  To pay its debts, Britain turned to the colonies  Enforced existing policies  Imposed new taxes  Colonists objected: “no taxation without representation”

13 Stamp Act of 1765  Required that all legal documents and public documents (ex. Contracts, newspapers) have a stamp on it.  The stamp cost money, which went directly to the British government

14  9 colonies sent delegates (representatives) to the Stamp Act Congress in New York  Wrote a “Declaration of Rights and Grievances” to King George  *1 st time colonies joined forces and opposed the British government**  Result: Stamp Act was repealed, but…  Parliament continued to impose new laws and taxes on the colonies  Colonists began to boycott British products

15 Rising Conflict: The Boston Tea Party (1773)

16  Samuel Adams formed the Committees of Correspondence in 1772  Provided information network among anti- British groups  Organized protests, militias, boycotts

17  Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts in 1774 to punish the colonists  Sept. 5, 1774: 56 delegates met in Philadelphia  All colonies represented except GA  Met for nearly 2 months  Sent a Declaration of Rights protesting Britain’s colonial policies to King George III  Called for all colonies to stop trade with Britain until the taxes were repealed

18  British government responded to 1 st CC with stricter measures and refusal to compromise  Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775  All colonies sent representatives  Revolutionary War had already begun  **1 st government of U.S., lasted 5 yrs**

19  No more kings! No more kings!

20  1 year into the Revolution, Congress nominated a committee of 5 to draft their declaration of independence –  Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson  Jefferson, the youngest, did most of the writing  He was greatly influenced by John Locke’s social contract philosophy

21 Major Concepts 1. Popular sovereignty 2. Limited government 3. Individual rights 4. Equality of men 5. People only consent to government to protect life, liberty, and property Justification for the American Revolution 1. King George violated the social contract by violating life, liberty, property of colonists 2. When the contract is violated, the people have the obligation to revolt

22  “Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.”  In other words…  Our 1 st try at a Constitution  Set up a confederacy  Weak central government

23  Only one branch of government: Legislative  Legislature = Congress  Congress was unicameral (one house)  No executive or judicial branch  Each state had 1 vote, regardless of size or population  1 member was chosen to be the presiding officer (chairman) each year  Congress appointed civil officers (ex. Postmaster)

24 The states! Congress could only…  Borrow Money  Organize a Post Office  Make/Sign Treaties  Declare War  Establish army/navy  Control of Western Territories

25  No separation of powers  No chief executive  Congress did not have power to tax  Congress did not have power to regulate trade  No national currency  No national court system  Unanimous approval required for amendments  9/13 majority state approval required to pass laws

26  Peace treaty with Britain  Country doubled in size

27  Weak central government led to unrest  Congress had no way to pay war debts  States ignored their promises to the national government  Printed their own $$  Formed their own armies  Taxed goods from other states  Some states banned trade with others  The whole country was in an economic depression  Shays’ Rebellion

28  Daniel Shays  Poor farm hand  Fought in the Revolution, but was never paid  There was widespread resentment toward Massachusetts government  Refused to issue paper money  Foreclosing on citizens for repayment of debts  All men in government were wealthy property owners

29  Shays organized 700 armed farmers and marched on the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts  The rebellions multiplied in Massachusetts and spread to nearby states  To counter the insurgency, the government drew up a Riot Act  Several rebels were put on trial and sentenced to death

30 **The country’s continued lack of $$ and increased violence and unrest led to a call for a stronger national government**

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