2 Formatting 1” margins Times New Roman font Double-spaced Running head in all caps at top left of every pagePage number at top right of every page
3 Writing StyleScientific writing does not have to lack style or be dullPresent findings directly, but in a way that conveys involvement in the problemAddress differing positions of researchers in a professional, non-combative wayUse specific and concise languageAvoid poetic or figurative languageVary sentence length and complexity to add interest
4 Writing Style, cont’dMaintain continuity and smoothness of expression with punctuation, transitions, consistent verb tenseUse third person, unless otherwise specifiedUse active voice as much as possibleBe precise and clearDon’t add words for the sake of lengthDon’t repeat yourself for emphasisAvoid colloquialisms, which weaken meaningAvoid overusing jargon
5 Guidelines for Reducing Bias Describe at the appropriate level of specificityWhen in doubt, be more specific rather than lessAvoid terms that are loaded with innuendo, such as “at risk,” unless you are defining your use of the term.Be specific and sensitive when describing or discussing age, racial groups, sexual orientation, marital status, disabilities, etc.
6 Guidelines for Reducing Bias, cont’d Be sensitive to labelsRespect preferences – call people what they prefer to be calledRemember that preferences can change over time and that individuals within groups may disagreeAvoid labeling whenever possibleLabels can cause participants in a study to lose their individuality and/or personhood
7 Guidelines for Reducing Bias, cont’d Acknowledge participationWrite about people in a way that acknowledges their participation and is consistent with the traditions of the fieldAccepted terms include “participants” and “subjects”Avoid the term “failed,” because it can imply a personal shortcoming rather than a research result
9 Title Page Running head Page number Centered on top half of the page: Running head: TITLE OR SHORTENED TITLEThe words “Running head:” only appear on the title page. Subsequent pages will only include the titlePage numberCentered on top half of the page:Title of PaperNameInstitution Name
10 Abstract Running head and page number in header “Abstract” centered on first line, first line of paragraph will not be indentedwords, double-spacedBrief, comprehensive summary of paperNot an introduction to the paperWill not contain citations
11 Main BodyTitle centered on top of first pageHeadingsCitations
12 Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading HeadingsUsed to separate sections of the paper and establish information hierarchyUse in order, beginning with Level 1Level 1Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase HeadingLevel 2Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
13 Headings Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a period.Level 4Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.Level 5Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.
14 In-Text CitationsUsed whenever directly quoting or paraphrasing from another author’s workWhen paraphrasing, use author, date format:(Author last name, year)A citation for a direct quote should also include a page number:(Author, year, p. #)Quotations 40 words or longer should be placed in a freestanding blockIf no author is given, used a shortened version of the title in the citation
15 In-Text CitationsIf the publication date is unknown, use “n.d.” in its placeFor works with two authors, list both and use an ampersand: (Smith & Jones, 2010)For works with 3 or more authors, list all in the first citation: (Smith, Jones, & Brown, 2010), in subsequent citations, list the first author and “et al.”: (Smith et al., 2010)Classical works such as the Bible are only cited in-text. Include the reference and version used: (1 Cor. 13:1, Revised Standard Version)
16 References Include running head and page number Center “References” at the top of the pageEvery line after the first line of a reference entry should be indented one-half inch from the marginReferences are listed in alphabetical order by author nameAuthors are listed last name first, followed by first and middle initials
17 ReferencesAll titles except journal titles have only the first word capitalizedAlways capitalize proper nounsCapitalize the first word after a colonArticle titles do not use quotation marks, underlines, or italicsBook titles should be italicized
18 Reference ListBookAuthor, A. A. (Publication Year). Title of work: Subtitle. Location: Publisher.Separate multiple authors with commasUp to 7 authorsFor more than 7, follow with ellipsis (…), skip to last author, list final authorUse an ampersand (&) instead of the word “and”Article in a periodicalAuthor, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume # (issue #), page #s.
19 Reference List, cont’d Article from an online periodical (with DOI) The digital object identifier (DOI) is a reference number assigned to online periodical contentSearchable in online databases (like an ISBN)Author, A. A. (Date). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume # (issue #), pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxx
20 Reference List, cont’d Article from an online periodical (without DOI) Author, A. A. (Date). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume # (issue #), pp-pp. Retrieved fromA web siteAuthor, A. A. (Date). Title of document. Retrieved from
21 APA Resources PowerPoint presentation APA Manual APA ManualPurdue’s Online Writing Lab
22 The Writing Centers Undergraduate Writing Center Office hours: M-F, 8 am – 5 pm(434)Graduate Writing CenterOffice hours: M-F, 9 am – 5 pm(434)