2 DICTIONOne of the most important ingredients in a good writing is choosing exactly the right word for every situation (especially for poetry)
3 1. Word Choice Two kinds of vocabulary What word to use? Passive – all d words we can recognize when we read or listen to someone talkActive – all d words we r capable of using when we write or speakWhat word to use?Words that we have complete command of in order to guarantee precision & avoid unfortunate connotations.
4 Denotation vs. Connotation Denotation – literal meaningConnotation – more subtle, may include certain feelings, idea & value judgmentsE.g:I want you to vote for Joe Boss, one of the greatest politicians (statesmen) in America. He has always been truthful (sincere) and all tied up in his work (devoted to his public duties).
5 This little shack (house) is for sale This little shack (house) is for sale. It has an outmoded (old fashioned) fireplace and curious (quaint) old window. It has recently been scraped and painted (redecorated). It is located on a lovely plot of earth (piece of land) near an overgrown (wooded) area.
6 2. Clichés (Triteness)Expressions (usually simile or metaphors) that have been used so often that they are worn outBusy as a bee, last but not least, etcHave lost their originality, colour & effectiveness.Should be avoided (unless it is intended for a boring character)
7 3. JargonManner of speaking or writing peculiar to a certain occupation or profession (specialized language)Some can be evasive/ euphemistic/ technicalTry to avoid unless if u have characters who talk that way then write realistic dialogueE.g:Military – retreat = strategic withdrawalBusinessmen – priority = prioritizeSports – underdog upset leading contendersPoliticians – human rights, democratic process, the future lies ahead
8 4. Slang (+informal lang) To say things in an informal & colourful waysEvery lang and generation has its slangSome appear & disappear quickly – jazz, jazz up, all that jazzCreated by giving new meaning to an old word – hock (the joint of the hind leg of certain animals – to pawn –to shoplift)Combining of words in a new way – gorilla + baboon = goon, hangout, hangoverSheer invention – dork, scam
9 How much to use depends on your style Colloquialisms often informal abbrv. of formal words – phone , comp, prof, math, autoIlliteracies involves errors in grammars & spelling but r often part of the everyday regional speech – ain’t , hain’t, sorta, kinda, hisself, theirself, heared.You will have to use informal language in dialogue but remember that language changes rapidly & can id the generation of the speakerWe had a swell time at the road house. vs. We partied all night at a club.How much to use depends on your styleFormal, classical prose – avoid or use with caution
10 5. Accents Many have done this Eg. Mark Twain (Huckleberry Finn) To put on paper the actual sound of a dialect (regional accents) means abandoning grammar & all the conventions of spellingSome readers may find it hard to readSolution? Suggest the accent in a limited way & use more normal language
11 6. Glossary (Usage) Confusing words in terms of usage Eg. Advice, adviseAffect. EffectAggravateAllusion, illusionFunGet a standard reference books on usage
12 Have a good dictionary & know a few basic guidelines SPELLINGHave a good dictionary & know a few basic guidelines
13 1. Compound WordsMade up of 2 or more words that serve as a single unit or modifierwritten as 1 word / hyphenatedB4 noun almost all hyphenated (adj)After noun no hyphenE.g:Well-known painter vs. As a painter he was well known
14 2. Final Silent eUsually dropped when an ending beginning with another vowel is added – dine, diningRetainedto distinguish similar sounds - dye, dyeing.Add ending begin with consonant – hate, hatefulWords end with ce, ge + ending begin a/o – change,changeable /notice,noticeable
15 Punctuation Creative use of punctuation would portray mood of characterdramatic action in the storysuspense