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Use of noun compounds Effective Communication in Management and Business Seminar 9 John Morgan.

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1 Use of noun compounds Effective Communication in Management and Business Seminar 9 John Morgan

2 Greenley et al. 2005: 1483  “Does a market orientation approach focus too heavily on customers at the expense of other stakeholders? Managers also need to address the interests of other stakeholders when making marketing decisions (Donald and Preston, 1995; Greenley and Foxall, 1998; Miller and Lewis, 1991; Ogden and Watson, 1999). In this article, we address market orientation within the context of multiple stakeholder orientation. Managers have orientations toward each of their stakeholder groups, which exist simultaneously. We propose that this constitutes a multiple stakeholder orientation profile (MSOP), which is the simultaneous ordering of attitudes towards each set of stakeholder interests and allocated managerial behaviour to serve these interests. However, there will be variation in MSOPs, such as a market focus MSOP that emphasizes customers, and an internal focus MSOP that emphasizes employees. As a market focus MSOP simultaneously addresses the interests of customers along with those of other main stakeholders, it is a more comprehensive and realistic approach than the restricted market orientation approach.

3 Why use noun compounds?  Noun compounds are created to formalise long descriptive phrases—also known as noun phrases—that make up singular concepts when the words are grouped together. When separated each of the words may have multiple meanings in different contexts:

4 For example  International exchange rate = the value of one currency against the value of another currency.  How many meanings or different situations can you find in which you could use the words separately? International= Exchange= Rate=

5 Translating  Translate each word into your own language.  Do they make sense as the noun compound “international exchange rate”?  This may present significant problems in reading and writing academic text in a foreign or second language and it is advisable to read complex passages twice to look for overall meanings and larger structures.

6 Grammatical structure  “Does a (S) market orientation approach (V) focus too heavily on (O + noun phrase) customers at the expense of other stakeholders?  (S) Managers also need (V) to address the (O + noun phrase) interests of other stakeholders when making marketing decisions (Donald and Preston, 1995; Greenley and Foxall, 1998; Miller and Lewis, 1991; Ogden and Watson, 1999).

7 Grammatical structure 2  In this article, (S) we (V) address (O + noun phrase) market orientation within the context of multiple stakeholder orientation.  (S) Managers (V) have (O + noun phrase) orientations toward each of their stakeholder groups, (defining relative clause) which exist simultaneously.

8 Grammatical structure 3  (S) We (V) propose that (O + noun phrase) this constitutes a multiple stakeholder orientation profile (MSOP), (defining relative pronoun) which is the (noun phrase) simultaneous ordering of attitudes towards each set of stakeholder interests and allocated managerial behaviour to serve these interests.

9 Grammatical structure 4  However, (S + noun phrase) there will be variation in MSOPs, (subordinate clause + noun phrase) such as a market focus MSOP (non-defining relative clause) that (parallel V) emphasizes (parallel O) customers, and an internal focus MSOP that (parallel V) emphasizes (parallel O) employees.

10 Grammatical structure 5  As (S) a market focus MSOP simultaneously (V) addresses (O + noun phrase) the interests of customers along with those of other main stakeholders, (subordinate clause + noun phrase) it is a more comprehensive and realistic approach than the restricted market orientation approach.

11 Noun compounds from noun phrases  Noun compounds are essentially created through the need to be concise and precise. Once a compound is created and accepted into either a language or a professional field, it serves as a permanent reference to a single concept. By doing so it allows greater economy of language use as it removes a significant amount of grammatical features that increase the length of sentences. As such, if a noun phrase is likely to be repeated many times through your writing, it is almost essential to create a noun compound if none exists already.

12 Example 1  Full form noun phrase Groups of stakeholders 1 2  Noun compound stakeholder groups 2 1

13 Example 2  A profile of the orientation of multiple stakeholders 3  multiple stakeholder orientation profile (MSOP)

14 Acronyms and plurals  The acronym is added here as it may become a part of other noun compounds that would be too complex without the acronym.  Note that in each of the noun compounds above, the plural form of stakeholders from the full form noun phrases has become singular.

15 Turn these into noun compounds  Interests of stakeholders  Behaviour allocated to managers  An MSOP that focuses on the market  An MSOP the focuses internally  An approach to market orientation that is restricted

16 Answers  Stakeholder interests  Allocated managerial behaviour  Market focus MSOP  Internal focus MSOP  Restricted market orientation approach

17 Reference for text samples  Greenley, G.E., Hooley, G.J. & Rudd, J.M. (2005). “Market orientation in a multiple stakeholder orientation context: implications for marketing capabilities and assets. Journal of Business Research 58:


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