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Editing for Grammar and Punctuation Module Fourteen Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

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Presentation on theme: "Editing for Grammar and Punctuation Module Fourteen Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Editing for Grammar and Punctuation Module Fourteen Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2 Learning Objectives LO 14-1 Apply strategies for professional image creation with grammar and mechanics. LO 14-2 Apply principles for common grammatical error correction. LO 14-3 Apply principles for sentence error correction. LO 14-4 Evaluate situations for comma use. 14-2

3 Learning Objectives LO 14-5 Apply principles for punctuation use inside sentences. LO 14-6 Apply principles for source quotation. LO 14-7 Apply principles for number and date use. LO 14-8 Apply standard proofreading marks throughout the writing process. 14-3

4 Creating a Professional Image  Many business leaders see good grammar and mechanics as essential to creating effective messages— and to demonstrating quality. 14-4

5 Creating a Professional Image  Errors can create a negative image of the writer.  Occasionally, errors in grammar and punctuation hide the writer’s meaning.  Don’t try to fix errors in your first and second drafts.  Most writers make a small number of grammatical errors repeatedly. 14-5

6 What grammatical errors do I need to be able to fix? Subject-Verb agreement Noun- pronoun agreement Case Dangling and Misplaced Modifier Parallel Structure Predication Errors 14-6

7 What grammatical errors do I need to be able to fix? Subjects and verbs agree when they are both singular or both plural.  Incorrect: The accountants who conducted the audit was recommended highly.  Correct: The accountants who conducted the audit were recommended highly. 14-7

8 What grammatical errors do I need to be able to fix? Errors in noun–pronoun agreement occur if a pronoun is of a different number or person than the word it refers to.  Incorrect: All drivers of leased automobiles are billed $100 if damages to his automobile are caused by a collision.  Correct: All drivers of leased automobiles are billed $100 if damages to their automobiles are caused by collisions. 14-8

9 What grammatical errors do I need to be able to fix? Use reflexive and intensive pronouns (the form with self or selves ) to refer to or emphasize a noun or pronoun that has already appeared in the sentence.  Incorrect: Elaine and myself will follow up on this order.  Correct: Elaine and I will follow up on this order. 14-9

10 The Case of the Personal Pronoun 14-10

11 What grammatical errors do I need to be able to fix?  Modifiers are words or phrases that give more information about the subject, verb, or object in a clause.  A modifier dangles when the word it modifies is not actually in the sentence

12 What grammatical errors do I need to be able to fix? Dangling Modifier  Incorrect: Confirming our conversation, the truck will leave Monday. [The speaker is doing the confirming. But the speaker isn’t in the sentence.]  Correct: As I told you, the truck will leave Monday

13 What grammatical errors do I need to be able to fix? A misplaced modifier appears to modify another element of the sentence than the writer intended.  Incorrect: Customers who complain often alert us to changes we need to make.  Correct: Often, customers who complain alert us to changes we need to make

14 What grammatical errors do I need to be able to fix? Items in a series or list must have the same grammatical structure. Not parallel: In the second month of your internship, you will 1. Learn how to resolve customers’ complaints. 2. Supervision of desk staff. 3. Interns will help plan store displays

15 What grammatical errors do I need to be able to fix? Parallel: In the second month of your internship, you will 1. Learn how to resolve customers’ complaints. 2. Supervise desk staff. 3. Plan store displays

16 What grammatical errors do I need to be able to fix? The predicate of a sentence must fit grammatically and logically with the subject.  Incorrect: The reason for this change is because the SEC now requires fuller disclosure.  Correct: The reason for this change is that the SEC now requires fuller disclosure

17 How can I fix sentence errors?  Main clause  a complete statement  Subordinate or dependent clause  contains both a subject and verb but is not a complete statement and cannot stand by itself 14-17

18 How can I fix sentence errors? Comma splices Run-on sentences Fused sentences Sentence fragments

19 Should I put a comma every place I’d take a breath?  When you move from the subject to the verb, you’re going in a straight line; no comma is needed  When you end an introductory phrase or clause, the comma tells readers the introduction is over and you’re turning to the main clause

20 What Punctuation Tells the Reader 14-20

21 What do I use when I quote sources? Use quotation marks around:  the names of brochures, pamphlets, and magazine articles  words to indicate that you think the term is misleading  words that you are discussing as words  words or sentences that you quote from someone else 14-21

22 What do I use when I quote sources?  Use square brackets to add your own additions to or changes in quoted material.  Use ellipses to indicate that one or more words have been omitted in the middle of quoted material.  Underline or italicize words to emphasize them 14-22

23 How should I write numbers and dates?  Spell out numbers from one to nine.  Always use figures for amounts of money  In dates, use numbers for the day and year

24 Proofreading Symbols 14-24

25 Marked Text 14-25


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