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What are the differences and similarities between major world religions? What are the differences and similarities between major world religions?

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Presentation on theme: "What are the differences and similarities between major world religions? What are the differences and similarities between major world religions?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What are the differences and similarities between major world religions? What are the differences and similarities between major world religions?

2 Buddhism Holy Book/Writings Buddhism is not based on a single book. It is based on the Dhamma as told by Buddha. The Dhamma consists of three parts 1. Sutra Pitaka, 2. Vinaya Pitaka 3. Abhidhamma Pitaka. Buddhism is not based on a single book. It is based on the Dhamma as told by Buddha. The Dhamma consists of three parts 1. Sutra Pitaka, 2. Vinaya Pitaka 3. Abhidhamma Pitaka. It is true that there is nothing like a holy book fell from the sky or written by something like a GOD in Buddhism. But there are books compiled by some highly intelligent disciples of the Buddha. It is true that there is nothing like a holy book fell from the sky or written by something like a GOD in Buddhism. But there are books compiled by some highly intelligent disciples of the Buddha. Not written by something like a god But there are books compiled by some highly intelligent disciples of the Buddha.

3 Buddhism Important and Major Beliefs Buddhism teaches its followers that in this life they are only temporary vessels of body, emotions, thoughts, tendencies, and knowledge. Buddhists believe that there is no sense of self or soul when in this world. Buddhism teaches its followers that in this life they are only temporary vessels of body, emotions, thoughts, tendencies, and knowledge. Buddhists believe that there is no sense of self or soul when in this world. A Buddhist must also follow five main principles which prohibit killing, stealing, ill language, sexual immorality, and the use of toxic substances A Buddhist must also follow five main principles which prohibit killing, stealing, ill language, sexual immorality, and the use of toxic substances

4 Among the most popular Buddhist deities are Kuan Yin, the Medicine Buddha, the Laughing Buddha and the Green and White Taras Buddhism Deities The Buddha's teachings and Theravada Buddhism are essentially atheistic, although neither deny the existence of beings that might be called "gods."

5 Ananda Ananda The Buddha's cousin and one of his primary disciples. He memorized and recited the Buddha's teachings, and so was known as the Dhammabhandagarika, "treasurer of the teachings." The Buddha's cousin and one of his primary disciples. He memorized and recited the Buddha's teachings, and so was known as the Dhammabhandagarika, "treasurer of the teachings." Dalai Lama Dalai Lama Leader of Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism. The current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso. Leader of Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism. The current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso.Tibetan BuddhismTibetan Buddhism Gautama Gautama The given name of the historical Buddha. The given name of the historical Buddha.historical Buddhahistorical Buddha Nhat Hanh, Thich Nhat Hanh, Thich (1926-) Expatriate Vietnamese Zen Buddhist monk, teacher, author, poet and peace activist. (1926-) Expatriate Vietnamese Zen Buddhist monk, teacher, author, poet and peace activist. Sakyamuni Sakyamuni "Sage of the Sakya tribe." Another name for the historical Buddha. "Sage of the Sakya tribe." Another name for the historical Buddha.historical Buddhahistorical Buddha Buddhism Important Figures

6 Formed c. 5th century B.C.E. Formed c. 5th century B.C.E. Origin India Origin India Followers 350,000,000 Followers 350,000,000 Deity None / pantheon of deities Deity None / pantheon of deities Sacred Texts Pali Tipitika, Mahayana, Vajrayana Canons Sacred Texts Pali Tipitika, Mahayana, Vajrayana Canons Headquarters None Headquarters None Formed: The exact dates of the Buddha's birth and death are disputed. Formed: The exact dates of the Buddha's birth and death are disputed. Buddhism History and Geography

7 A Buddha statue in Sakya Monastery, Seattle, WA A Buddha statue in Sakya Monastery, Seattle, WA Buddhism Important Religions Sites Bodh Gaya – India Maya Devi Temple

8 Buddhism: 360 million Buddhism Number of Followers and Location

9 Buddhist New Year In Theravadin countries, Thailand, Burma, Sri Lanka, Cambodia and Laos, the new year is celebrated for three days from the first full moon day in April. Buddhism Important Holidays and Ceremonies Vesak or Visakah Puja ("Buddha Day") Traditionally, Buddha's Birthday is known as Vesak or Visakah Puja (Buddha's Birthday Celebrations). Vesak is the major Buddhist festival of the year as it celebrates the birth, enlightenment and death of the Buddha on the one day, Magha Puja Day (Fourfold Assembly or "Sangha Day") Magha Puja Day takes places on the full moon day of the third lunar month (March).

10 Buddhism’s journey through East Asia featured countless reinventions. By the time it reached Japan, Buddhism underwent multiple evolutions and had splintered into several distinct schools. Buddhism’s journey through East Asia featured countless reinventions. By the time it reached Japan, Buddhism underwent multiple evolutions and had splintered into several distinct schools. Buddhism’s migration to Japan from the Asian mainland and establishment as a religion began at the political level. From the outset, Buddhism was enjoyed by only an elite few in the upper echelons of the Nara court. Buddhism’s migration to Japan from the Asian mainland and establishment as a religion began at the political level. From the outset, Buddhism was enjoyed by only an elite few in the upper echelons of the Nara court. Buddhism is Buddhism is Arguably the most peaceful of the world’s Religions however its rise to prominence in Japan did not escape the assumption of a the assumption of a militaristic role. Buddhism Impact on World History

11 Buddhism Examples of Ethnocentrism within each Religion In Buddhism they think everybody is equal so they don’t really have ethnocentrism, they don’t think they are superior to other religions unlike some. EXAMPLE 

12 Islam Holy Book/Writings The only holy Islamic writing is the Quran. The Quran is God revelation to Prophet Mohamed (peace upon him) by the Angel Gabriel (Jibril). The God revelation of Quran to prophet Mohamed started in year 610 until year 632 when Prophet Mohamed died. The Quran remains preserved, word by word, as revealed by God to Prophet Mohamed to this day. The only holy Islamic writing is the Quran. The Quran is God revelation to Prophet Mohamed (peace upon him) by the Angel Gabriel (Jibril). The God revelation of Quran to prophet Mohamed started in year 610 until year 632 when Prophet Mohamed died. The Quran remains preserved, word by word, as revealed by God to Prophet Mohamed to this day. THE QURAN is Islam's most holy book religions/islam/holy-writings-4.htm

13 Evangelical Christians — Jesus Christ —Created in God’s image —Created in God’s image —Since Adam’s fall, sin is inherent —All relationships damaged beyond human ability to repair —Eternal communion with God (heaven) —Eternal communion with God (heaven) —Eternal separation from God (hell) Islam Important and Major Beliefs Muslims —Muhammad (or Mohammed) —A.D —The last in the line of prophets and the final authority —Like the other prophets, he was infallible and sinless —Created by God with ability to follow will of Allah — Final judgment with destination of paradise or hell

14 The Creed: To testify that, "There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet." This creed must be confessed in order to become and remain a Muslim. The Creed: To testify that, "There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet." This creed must be confessed in order to become and remain a Muslim. Prayer: To offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and perfectly. They originally prayed facing Jerusalem until Mohammed fell out with the Jews. Prayer: To offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and perfectly. They originally prayed facing Jerusalem until Mohammed fell out with the Jews. Bible: [Mat 6:7] And in praying use not vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking. Bible: [Mat 6:7] And in praying use not vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking. Almsgiving: Muslims are required to give one fortieth of their income to Allah as Zakat (obligatory charity). The recipients of such benevolence feel no gratitude towards the giver. They believe they are giving him the opportunity to fulfill his responsibility. Almsgiving: Muslims are required to give one fortieth of their income to Allah as Zakat (obligatory charity). The recipients of such benevolence feel no gratitude towards the giver. They believe they are giving him the opportunity to fulfill his responsibility. Bible: [2Cor 9:7] Each one must do as he has made up his mind, not reluctantly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver. Bible: [2Cor 9:7] Each one must do as he has made up his mind, not reluctantly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver. Fasting: To observe fast during the month of Ramadan; this is the month that Mohammed performed his meditation. Fasting: To observe fast during the month of Ramadan; this is the month that Mohammed performed his meditation. Islam Deities odallah/a/god.htm

15 Allah is Islams God. They believe that he is the ruler of Heaven and earth. They believe he is capable of doing everything, and that he is the master of everything. Islam is not only a belief in God (Allah), but also a practice, spiritual and temporal. Muhammad: They believe that Muhammad is the "Seal of the Prophets", the last of those who have come to convey the divine wisdom of God to humanity. He is afforded the hightest spiritual prominence because he directly got the word of God. Muhammad is the last prophet, who completed the teachings of all the prophets who came before him. Islam Important Figures d17.html

16 The Islamic empire began to expand beyond the Arabian Peninsula after the death of the prophet and founder of Islam, Mohammed, in 632 AD. Islamic leaders conquered Iran in 641 and in 642 Egypt was under Islamic control. The Islamic empire began to expand beyond the Arabian Peninsula after the death of the prophet and founder of Islam, Mohammed, in 632 AD. Islamic leaders conquered Iran in 641 and in 642 Egypt was under Islamic control. Islam History and Geography eography/a/islamicgeo.htm

17 Islamic Center of America Islam Important Religions Sites Grand Mosque of Mecca

18 Followers called Muslims Jews Christians Number of Followers 1.3 billion 14 million 2 billion World's Rank 2nd largest Major Locations Middle East, Southeast Asia Sacred Text Qur'an (Koran) Clergy imams, muezzins House of Worship mosque Primary Worship Day Friday Islam Number of Followers and Location tory.com/religionscom parison.pdf

19 Ramadan - Each year, Muslims spend a month in daytime fasting, during the 9th month of the Islamic calendar called Ramadan. Ramadan - Each year, Muslims spend a month in daytime fasting, during the 9th month of the Islamic calendar called Ramadan. Laylat al-Qadr - Towards the end of Ramadan, Muslims observe the "Night of Power," which is when the first verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad. Laylat al-Qadr - Towards the end of Ramadan, Muslims observe the "Night of Power," which is when the first verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad. Eid al-Fitr - At the end of Ramadan, Muslims celebrate "The Festival of Fast- Eid al-Fitr - At the end of Ramadan, Muslims celebrate "The Festival of Fast-Breaking." Hajj - Each year during the 12th month of the Islamic calendar, millions of Muslims make an annual pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia called Hajj. Hajj - Each year during the 12th month of the Islamic calendar, millions of Muslims make an annual pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia called Hajj. Day of Arafat - During one day of the Hajj, pilgrims gather at the Plain of Arafat to seek God's mercy, and Muslims elsewhere fast for the day. Day of Arafat - During one day of the Hajj, pilgrims gather at the Plain of Arafat to seek God's mercy, and Muslims elsewhere fast for the day.  Eid al-Adha - At the end of the annual pilgrimage, Muslims celebrate "The Festival of Sacrifice." Islam Important Holidays and Ceremonies holidays.htm

20 Greatest gift Muslims gave to the nations of the world is Islam. It is Islam’s philosophy of utilizing the knowledge of the Qur’an, purity in the heart and clarity in the mind that was responsible for influencing the nations of the world to better serve God, raise the standards of Greatest gift Muslims gave to the nations of the world is Islam. It is Islam’s philosophy of utilizing the knowledge of the Qur’an, purity in the heart and clarity in the mind that was responsible for influencing the nations of the world to better serve God, raise the standards of living, and promote justice and brotherhood for living, and promote justice and brotherhood for all. all. It is clear to Muslims that reason and faith do not collide; instead they integrate and yield fertile goodness yield fertile goodness Islam Impact on World History influence-on-the-world.htm

21 The believe that our religion is better than somebody else's. they also Criticize systems of living because they do not match theirs. Women's rights is also a problem. Islam Examples of Ethnocentrism within each Religion

22 Judaism Holy Book/Writings The Jews are known as the "People of the Book,Study of Torah and other Jewish texts has been central to religious life. The Torah, the Talmud, and other Jewish writings are precious sources of Jewish history and divine commandments (the mitzvot), both of which continue to play a dominant part in Judaism. Study of Torah is an integral part of a Jewish child's education, and even Jewish mysticism is focused on intensive textual study. m/texts.htm

23 Judaism is a monotheistic faith, meaning that Jews believe there is only One God Judaism teaches that every person (Jewish and non-Jewish) was created in the image of God People have the freewill to make choices in their lives and each of us is responsible for the consequences of those choices. People have the freewill to make choices in their lives and each of us is responsible for the consequences of those choices. Judaism Important and Major Beliefs /whatdojewsbelieve.htm

24 Judaism is strictly monotheistic meaning that they have only one deity. The Creator has one true name which is represented by the letters YHVH in English. The Hebrew letters are "yud, hei, vav, hei". Which are Hebrew words for, "was, is, and will be". His true name was only said in the Temple and with the Temple's destruction they lost the correct pronunciation. Judaism is strictly monotheistic meaning that they have only one deity. The Creator has one true name which is represented by the letters YHVH in English. The Hebrew letters are "yud, hei, vav, hei". Which are Hebrew words for, "was, is, and will be". His true name was only said in the Temple and with the Temple's destruction they lost the correct pronunciation. In the Tanach (Jewish Bible), there are 72 different 'names' used for The Creator. Those arents his actual names though. In the Tanach (Jewish Bible), there are 72 different 'names' used for The Creator. Those arents his actual names though. Judaism Deities asics/a/whatdojewsbelieve.htm

25 God is the greatest key figure for God is the greatest key figure for Judaism. He is the creator of the universe, and he is well respected. There are many beliefs about god. God or Lord is very sacred to Jews. They do not say his name aloud and they spell it G-d and L-rd. Moses was the greatest prophet, leader and teacher. Judaism Important Figures d4.html

26 Founded: Traditionally, by Moses approximately 3,300 years ago. The patriarch Abraham is also considered the founder of the Jewish people. Many modern scholars believe Judaism coalesced from various associated tribes in Palestine approximately 3,000 years ago Founded: Traditionally, by Moses approximately 3,300 years ago. The patriarch Abraham is also considered the founder of the Jewish people. Many modern scholars believe Judaism coalesced from various associated tribes in Palestine approximately 3,000 years ago Jews are scattered throughout the world in a diaspora. Jews are divided into two major ethnic groups. These are the Ashkenazi, whose ancestors originate from eastern Europe. Jews are scattered throughout the world in a diaspora. Jews are divided into two major ethnic groups. These are the Ashkenazi, whose ancestors originate from eastern Europe. The second major group are descended the The second major group are descended the Sephardic Jews whose ancestors were present during the "Golden Age" of Moorish Spain, lasting from CE. from CE. Judaism History and Geography cations.com/greenwoodsvillage/gor /judaism.php

27 Mount Zion Judaism Important Religions Sites Temple Mount/Dom e of the Rock Temple Mount/Dom e of the Rock Mount of Olives The Western Wall Via Dolorosa Church of the Holy Sepulchre Church of the Holy Sepulchre,,

28 Number of Followers 14 million World's Rank 12th largest Major Locations Israel, Europe, USA Clergy rabbis House of Worship synagogue Primary Worship Day Saturday Judaism Number of Followers and Location scomparison.pdf

29 Judaism Important Holidays and Ceremonies Purim Purim Purim is a joyful spring Jewish holiday that features a festive meal, gift-giving, costumes, and noisemakers in the synagogue, commemorating Esther. Shabbat (the Sabbath) Shabbat (the Sabbath) Many people know that the Sabbath is Saturday, the day of the week on which Jews are forbidden to work. From the Jewish perspective, the Sabbath is not about rules but about joyful celebration and rest. Jewish New Year (Rosh Hashanah) Jewish New Year (Rosh Hashanah) Rosh Hashanah means "head of the year" and is commonly known as the Jewish New Year. This Jewish holiday is a solemn and holy time. Days of Awe Days of Awe The Days of Awe are the 10 days from the beginning of Rosh Hashanah to the end of Yom Kippur. This time, which occurs in the autumn, is devoted to introspection, repentance, and atonement for sin. om/judaism/holidays.htm

30 Although the prophet Isaiah, predicting the events at the end of days refers to the Jews as “a light to the nations”, history has shown that the Jews have already considerably illuminated mankind and have made an enormous impact on civilization. The light of the Torah shines brightly over the world as over a half of humanity now subscribe to either Christianity or Islam, the derivative religions of Judaism Although the prophet Isaiah, predicting the events at the end of days refers to the Jews as “a light to the nations”, history has shown that the Jews have already considerably illuminated mankind and have made an enormous impact on civilization. The light of the Torah shines brightly over the world as over a half of humanity now subscribe to either Christianity or Islam, the derivative religions of Judaism The Jews are a race of philosophers; they do not cease to occupy themselves with the divinity The Jews are a race of philosophers; they do not cease to occupy themselves with the divinity The nature of the Jewish national character, the traditions surrounding their knowledge of philosophy and science, and the Jewish impact on world history are the subjects of this lecture. The nature of the Jewish national character, the traditions surrounding their knowledge of philosophy and science, and the Jewish impact on world history are the subjects of this lecture. Judaism Impact on World History

31 One of the most well known and the most horrible examples of ethnocentrism to ever occur was during Nazi Germany. Adolf Hitler decided that he hated Jews, as well as some other groups of people, and had many innocent people slaughtered in concentration camps. They did not deserve the torture that they received, and this was clearly an extreme case of ethnocentrism. While prejudice certainly leads to problems, very rarely in history has ethnocentrism led to the mass slaughter of millions of innocent people. Judaism Examples of Ethnocentrism within each Religion

32 Nice Job. This is a fine presentation. You hit almost all of the important facts in these three religions. There are a couple slides that could be improved, for example the Jewish slide on Ethnocentrism is really not an example of Jewish ethnocentrism, but rather on that of the Nazis. Your works cited was easy to find and I could tell where you got the information. The sources I checked were also accurate. Each category of the rubric is in the passing category so you are good to go. Nice Job. This is a fine presentation. You hit almost all of the important facts in these three religions. There are a couple slides that could be improved, for example the Jewish slide on Ethnocentrism is really not an example of Jewish ethnocentrism, but rather on that of the Nazis. Your works cited was easy to find and I could tell where you got the information. The sources I checked were also accurate. Each category of the rubric is in the passing category so you are good to go.

33 3210 Religions Each religion includes a full discussion of each of the 10 content categories. One or more of the religions does not include a full discussion of one or more of the content categories. Many of the content categories are incomplete for multiple religions and or have inaccurate information Content categories are missing, and or much of the information is inaccurate. Works Cited All facts are accurately cited in proper MLA format. Sources are credible and accurate and easily verifiable. It is easy to see where all information was gathered. Some facts are not cited, MLA format is questionable, and some sources are of questionable credibility. It can be difficult to see where information was found. Many facts are not cited, MLA format is not followed, and many sources are of questionable credibility. Finding where information was found is a chore or impossible. Many facts are not cited, MLA format is not followed, and many sources are of questionable credibility. Finding where information was found is a chore or impossible Visual Aid Visual aid is polished and cohesive. It is easy to read, has a nice mix of text and visual. Visual aid is heavy on either text or visuals; it has a few mistakes that distract from the presentation. Visual aid is almost solely text or visuals; there are several mistakes that make the presentation difficult to follow. Visual aid detracts from the presentation, there are many mistakes, factual errors, and it has no balance between text and visual. Rubric


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