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Earth Exploration-Satellite Service: Passive and Active Sensing Steven C. Reising * Associate Professor and Director Microwave Systems Laboratory Colorado.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Exploration-Satellite Service: Passive and Active Sensing Steven C. Reising * Associate Professor and Director Microwave Systems Laboratory Colorado."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Exploration-Satellite Service: Passive and Active Sensing Steven C. Reising * Associate Professor and Director Microwave Systems Laboratory Colorado State University *With extensive contributions from other members of the U.S. National Research Council’s Committee on Radio Frequencies (CORF) and Spectrum Study Committee May 31, 20101IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

2 Types of Sensors thermal emission reflection backscatter optical cameras and scanners infared and microwave radiometers radar and lidar May 31, 20102IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

3 JAXA’s AMSR-E Microwave Radiometer on NASA’s Aqua Satellite (EOS) Observes Earth at 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5 and 89.0 GHz Launched in 2002 May 31, 20103IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

4 Motivation – Scientific Impacts Radio-frequency measurements of natural phenomena provide essential information with broad scientific and economic impacts. Examples: 1.Atmospheric humidity and temperature 2.Clouds and precipitation 3.Sea surface temperature 4.Soil moisture May 31, 20104IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

5 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan5 Motivation – Economic Impacts Excerpted from National Research Council, Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010

6 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan6 One View from Space: Hurricane Katrina (2005) Warm ocean waters fuel hurricanes, and there was plenty of warm water for Katrina to build up strength once she crossed over Florida and moved into the Gulf of Mexico. This image depicts a 3-day average of actual sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, from August 25-27, Every area in yellow, orange or red represents 82 °F° or warmer, necessary to strengthen a hurricane. The data came from JAXA’s Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite. Credit: NASA/SVS

7 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan7 Another View of Hurricanes from Space: Bonnie and Danielle (1998) From Wentz et al., “Satellite Measurements of Sea Surface Temperature Through Clouds,” Science, vol. 288, pp , May 2000.

8 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan8 Excerpted from National Research Council, Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010 Impact of Passive Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture on Climate Forecasting

9 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan9 Impact of Passive Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture on Weather Forecasting Excerpted from National Research Council, Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010

10 Motivation – Sensitivity Receive-only (“passive”) measurements of weak natural signals in a broad range of frequencies must be made with extreme sensitivity. Example: –Equivalent temperature (proportional to received power) of 100 K in 100 MHz bandwidth → 0.1 pW –Sensitivity to 0.1-K fluctuations → 0.1 fW May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

11 Motivation – Stewardship The extreme sensitivity required makes it essential: –to maintain protected allocations and –to properly manage use of the spectrum near the protected allocations. Examples –WRC-07 mandatory emission limits May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

12 Motivation – Requirements Dedicated passive allocations exist only in a limited number of bands. There is need for protection of bands essential to scientific and societal interests that are not now protected. May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

13 Motivation – Opportunity and Challenge The receive-only services can sometimes take advantage of uncongested spectra not allocated to them. Increasing congestion is increasingly precluding this capability as radar and communications technologies advance. May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

14 Science Services May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan Excerpted from National Research Council, Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007.

15 EESS Organizations May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan Excerpted from National Research Council, Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007.

16 U.S. Passive Microwave Sensing Milestones (one from USSR) – : USSR Cosmos : NASA Nimbus-5 (NEMS and ESMR) –First long-lived satellites for all-weather imaging 1973: NASA Skylab (S-194) 1975: NASA Nimbus-6 (SCAMS) 1978: NASA Nimbus-7 (SMMR) 1978: NOAA TIROS-N (MSU & SSU) –First operational weather using temperature sounding May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

17 1987: USAF DMSP F8 (SSM/I) –First operational surface and atmospheric H 2 O 1991: NASA UARS (MLS) –First passive satellite measuring above 90 GHz 1997: NASA / JAXA TRMM (TMI) –Added 10.7 GHz to SSM/I to increase sensitivity to SST to improve precipitation measurements 1998: NOAA-15 (AMSU) 2002: NASA EOS Aqua (JAXA’s AMSR-E) U.S./Japan Passive Microwave Sensing Milestones – 2 May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

18 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan : NRL Coriolis (WindSat) –First polarimetric radiometry from space 2009: ESA SMOS (MIRAS) -- First synthetic aperture radiometry from space Anticipated Jan. 2011: NASA Aquarius and SAC-D (CONAE) -- Combined passive ( MHz) and active ( MHz) observations U.S. / Japan / Europe Passive Sensor Milestones – 3

19 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan19

20 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan20 ESA’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission: Nov Observes in the HI band reserved for RAS + EESS passive services Needs approx. 0.1 K sensitivity for ocean salinity Has recorded Enormous RFI, hundreds of K.

21 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan21

22 Radars below 1400 MHz Biggest threat to passive sensing operations in MHz is from OOB emissions from terrestrial radars operating in MHz Such radars are used for air-route surveillance by aeronautical community and many others for defense purposes Radars are high-power emitters Due to pulsed and/or frequency-hopping nature of operations, emissions spread well beyond allocated spectrum 22 From Zuzek, J., NASA Headquarters, MicroRad 2010, Washington, DC, presented March 4, 2010.

23 U.S. Radars in MHz 180 known radar systems and associated latitude and longitude positions were identified in the 1215 – 1400 MHz band for studies leading up to WRC-07 in the U.S. 65 additional radars identified as tactical shipboard radars (no specific locations) ~200 other tactical radars assigned to U.S. military (no specific locations) 23 From Zuzek, J., NASA Headquarters, MicroRad 2010, Washington, DC, presented March 4, 2010.

24 U.S. Radar Locations 24 Dots are radar locations Satellite Location From Zuzek, J., NASA Headquarters, MicroRad 2010, Washington, DC, presented March 4, 2010.

25 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan25 Physical Basis: Electromagnetic Radiation All matter absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation In addition to electronic transitions in their constituent atoms, molecules rotate and atoms vibrate at temperatures above absolute zero. vibration rotation electronic e-e- The absorption of electromagnetic radiation is dependent on the type of state transition, i.e., rotational, vibrational or electronic. The specific state transition determines the absorption frequency.

26 Planck’s Law of Blackbody Radiation May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan26 where h = 6.63 x J·sec, f = frequency in Hz, k = 1.38 x J/K, c = 3.0 x 10 8 m/s, T = absolute temperature in K. The radiobrightness, spectral brightness or simply “brightness” of a radiating object is given by Planck´s Radiation Law:

27 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan27 For objects at familiar temperatures, microwave and lower millimeter-wave frequencies (~1-100 GHz), hf << kT, The Rayleigh-Jeans Radiation Law is where = wavelength in m This approximation is valid within 1% up to the following frequencies for the following blackbody temperatures: T BB f 1% 2.7 K 100 K 300 K 1 GHz 39 GHz 117 GHz Rayleigh-Jeans Radiation Law

28 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (1)Atmosphere (4) Land (7) 2.7 K cosmic (2) Precipitation(5) Oceans microwave (3) Clouds (6) Scattering background Natural sources of microwave radiation

29 Land Surface Remote Sensing May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan Excerpted from National Research Council, Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010

30 Ocean Surface Remote Sensing May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan Excerpted from National Research Council, Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010

31 Atmospheric Absorption to 1 THz May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan The opacity of Earth’s atmosphere in the radio range of frequencies from 1 to 1000 GHz for six scenarios. Courtesy of A.J. Gasiewski, University of Colorado. Excerpted from National Research Council, Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010

32 Satellite Passive Sensing Frequency Bands 1 – 2 GHz (L band) 4 – 12 GHz (C and X bands) 12 – 26 GHz (Ku and K bands) 26 – 40 GHz (Ka band) 50 – 60 GHz(V band) 75 – 110 GHz (W band) 110 GHz – 3 THz (near-mm and sub-mm waves to THz) May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

33 1 – 2 GHz (L band) Soil Moisture (through vegetation) Ocean Salinity Aquarius/SAC-D May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

34 4 – 12 GHz (C and X bands) Soil Moisture (light vegetation) Sea Surface Temperature Wentz, FJ, CL Gentemann, DK Smith and others, 2000, Satellite measurements of sea surface temperature through clouds, Science, 288, Satellite measurements of sea surface temperature through clouds May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

35 12 – 26 GHz (Ku and K bands) Snow, sea ice, precipitation, clouds Ocean winds  Water vapor May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

36 26 – 40 GHz (Ka band) Snow, sea ice, precipitation, and clouds Ocean winds September 2005 broke the record for low summer sea ice extent, the measure of area containing at least 15 percent ice. The ice extent is shown by the edge of the colored region. The long-term average minimum extent contour (1979 to 2000) is in magenta. The grey circle indicates the area where the satellite does not take data. Data are from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). (Courtesy NSIDC) 2006/2006_seaice.html May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

37 50 – 60 GHz (V band) Atmospheric temperature Color coded map of decadal trends in lower troposphere temperature using MSU/AMSU channel TLT: Degrees Centigrade per Decade: (29 Years) May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

38 75 – 110 GHz (W band) Snow, sea ice, precipitation, clouds Atmospheric temperature May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

39 110 GHz – 3 THz (near-mm and sub-mm waves to THz) Precipitation and clouds Water vapor Atmospheric chemistry (trace gases) Data from NASA's Earth-observing Aura satellite show that the ozone hole peaked in size on Sept. 13, reaching a maximum area extent of 9.7 million square miles – just larger than the size of North America. That's "pretty average," says Paul Newman, an atmospheric scientist at NASA Goddard Space Fight Center, when compared to the area of ozone holes measured over the last 15 years. Still, the extent this year was "very big," he says, compared to 1970s when the hole did not yet exist. May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

40 Technical Aspects – 1 EESS and RAS (my comments as a outsider to RAS) –Shared bands of interest Atmospheric windows Gaseous emission spectral lines –Fundamental difference RAS generally requires local protection EESS generally requires global protection May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

41 Technical Aspects – 2 Modulation and Filtering –Use modulation schemes minimize to out-of- band emissions (e.g. GMSK) –Filters in EESS sensors are required but not always effective –Filters in transmitters are effective but challenging Interference Mitigation in EESS sensors –Frequency sub-banding –Time-domain pulse excision –Kurtosis technique for low-level RFI detection May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

42 Additional Protection – 1 Unwanted Emissions –Progress made at WRC-07 Mandatory limits –Challenge of shared allocations Assumption FSS (S-E) and EESS can be shared Recent EESS practice shows difficulties –Call for updated standards (limiting and controlling spurious, OOB, and harmonic emissions) May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

43 Additional Protection – 2 Bandwidth at C-band and higher –Need 1-2% allocation at a minimum –Desire 5% for current and emerging applications New Frequencies –C-band is essential for EESS operational systems: Future secondary allocation? –Update of ITU footnote for 275 GHz to 3000 GHz in the works for WRC-12 (AI 1.6) May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

44 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan44 RFI in 1400-MHz Protected Band Observed in 1997 Excerpted from National Research Council, Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010

45 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan45 RFI Observed at 10.7 GHz by JAXA’s AMSR-E on NASA’s Aqua Satellite Excerpted from National Research Council, Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010

46 Evolution of C- and X-band Global RFI GHz May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

47 GHz May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan Evolution of C- and X-band Global RFI

48 GHz May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan Evolution of C- and X-band Global RFI

49 Additional Resources Committee on Radio Frequencies (CORF) of the National Research Council: sites.nationalacademies.org/BPA/BPA_ sites.nationalacademies.org/BPA/BPA_ International Telecommunication Union: Scientific Committee on Frequency Allocations for Radio Astronomy and Space Science (IUCAF) of the International Council for Science: U.S. Federal Communications Commission: U.S. National Telecommunications and Information Administration: U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory Spectrum Management: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS) Frequency Allocations in Remote Sensing (FARS) Committee: committees/frequency-allocations-in-remote-sensing/www.grss-ieee.org/community/technical- committees/frequency-allocations-in-remote-sensing/ Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies (CRAF) of the European Science Foundation: U.S. National Science Foundation Electromagnetic Spectrum Management (ESM): May 31, IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan

50 May 31, 2010IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management, Tokyo, Japan50 Many thanks to NAOJ, Mitaka, Tokyo for hosting the Third IUCAF Summer School on Spectrum Management and to the entire Scientific Organizing Committee!


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