The Nordic Educational Systems There are many similarities in the Nordic Education Systems in the 20 th century due to strong political, social and cultural ties between the countries, but no two systems are the same and they have each developed somewhat differently or similarly but at different times. What is in common is that public schooling from 6-18 or 20 is paid or largely paid by the taxpayers. University education is largely free and the systems from preschool, through compulsive schooling are very similar. There is greater diversion in the structures of upper- secondary education and in higher and university education. Special needs education has developed somewhat differently in each of the countries, with Iceland and Norway being the most inclusive and Finland and Denmark the most exclusive. 3 Dóra S. Bjarnason April 2009 at Chapman Uni.
4 The National Expenditure on Education by the Nordic Countries 1960-1996 as a % of GDP
6 The Icelandic Education System 2009 free 6-16 subscription fee and own books at upper-secondary and university levels (5 Univ.) student loans at university level equal for all inclusive Recent changes: pre- school -first Schol Level (1-6) 1996 diversifcation of compulsory schools. upper-secondary school 3 or 4 years Private universities as well as public universities Teacher Education ac. To Bolonja now 5 years university education
Dóra S. Bjarnason April 2009 at Chapman Uni. 7 Iceland: Small population 319.368, large island, high standard of living, Nordic type welfare society, economic vulnerability, economic crash in 2008
Background 1790 and 1880 law on teaching children to read, then to write. Home education system. Schools begin to appear in latter half of the 19.th century (fixed schools and preambulatory teachers – Deaf and blind ed.) Teacher education 1892 (1 year) 1907 First law on compulsory ed. schools 1936 Law on the compulsory ed. school system Education act 1974 and Statutory Regulation on special education 1977 9 Dóra S. Bjarnason April 2009 at Chapman Uni.
Trends in policy and practice over time 1907 – 1945: Creating a Compulsory School System. 1945-1974: The Development of the Compulsory School system – Special education in the making. 1975-1995: Modernisation of the system similar to Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Equal opportunities for all. Special schools and classes (1980’s and early 1990’s) but also a move from integration to inclusion. 1995-2008: Decentralisation, Individualisation, Competition and Outcome Evaluations – But 2001 Reykjavík School Board Manifesto, Inclusion in focus, closing of all but 2 special schools, and a new special school for ADHD. Some parents of kids with disability labels are arguing for more segregated settings. October 2008 The Crash???????? 10 Dóra S. Bjarnason April 2009 at Chapman Uni.
Thank you for your time 11 Dóra S. Bjarnason April 2009 at Chapman Uni.