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1 Tarja Kahiluoto Integration of Education and Care in ECEC Integration at the System Level/ Finland as Example OECD Early Childhood Education and Care.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Tarja Kahiluoto Integration of Education and Care in ECEC Integration at the System Level/ Finland as Example OECD Early Childhood Education and Care."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Tarja Kahiluoto Integration of Education and Care in ECEC Integration at the System Level/ Finland as Example OECD Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Network 7 December 2009 Tarja Kahiluoto Ministerial Adviser Ministry of Social Affairs and Health

2 2 Tarja Kahiluoto

3 3 Tarja Kahiluoto 2.Child care and early education alternatives After Parental Leave Parents choose Care leave & home care allowance Private care allowance Municipal day care Pre-school for 6-year-old children Morning and afternoon activities for school children

4 4 Tarja Kahiluoto 3. Aspects of Integration in Finland Policy Goals Administration Legal Framework Delivery of services; access, age 0-6, forms of services, ratios, qualifications, fees Curriculum Funding –integration in all aspects

5 5 Tarja Kahiluoto 4. Brief History of ECEC in Finland Kindergartens already from 1860´s; early education at focus Also creches from 1860; care at focus; for low income families/single mothers who had to work EDUCARE ideology; socio-pedagogical kindergartens with Fröbel´s methods of upbringing from 1880´s At the system level the Day Care Act from 1973 integrated the different forms of kindergarten and creches as day care Day care could be organised in day care centres or as family day care The Day Care Act obligated the municipalities to provide day care in accordance with local needs. Early education and care for all in need Women´s participation in the labour market as main force

6 6 Tarja Kahiluoto 5. Focal points in the development 1973 the Day Care Act 1990 the right for day care for all children under the right for all children under school age – universal services 2000 Pre-School reform – –pre-school education free off charge for 6-year-old children –From 2001 August every municipality had to offer pre-school education for 6-year-old children, 700 hours/year 2004 Morning and afternoon activities for school children –targeted to children at 1-2 grades and all children with special needs

7 7 Tarja Kahiluoto 6. Policy goals of ECEC services Social policy –equal opportunities for all children –equal opportunities for women and men –early prevention Employment policy –both parents work, most full-time; need for good-quality services Educational policy –early education of all children All these tasks are present and relevant; during years the stress has differed between these policy goals

8 8 Tarja Kahiluoto 7. Goal of ECEC in Finland An integrated system: care + education To provide day care To offer goal-oriented early childhood education for children 0 – 6- year- old - children Photo Päivi Lindberg

9 9 Tarja Kahiluoto State Provincial Offices 8. ECEC Administration and Steering Parliament Council of State Services Day Care, Pre-School, School, Open ECEC Services etc. Municipality Core Curriculum for Pre-School Education National Curriculum Guidelines on ECEC National Board of Education Ministry of Social Affairs and HealthMinistry of Education National Institute for Health and Welfare Board on Social Affairesetc.Board on Education Affaires Principles in Pupils´ Morning and Afternoon Activities

10 10 Tarja Kahiluoto 9. Decentralised style of regulation Reforming the steering policy in the early 1990s has decreased Government steering by norms and increased the autonomy of the municipalities Change from steering by norms to steering by information Municipalities are responsible for the implementation of the services in their own localities 332 municipalities in continental Finland in 2009 Child day care is however, steered by a number of acts and decrees, eg. - Access to day care is an universal right; regulations on educational goals, staff-child ratio, staff qualifications and client fees in day care, Also pre-school education is regulated - Access to pre-school education for 6-year-old children is a right; regulations on staff qualification, recommendation on maximum group size, no client fees

11 11 Tarja Kahiluoto 10. Curriculum Process First national steering document for ECEC from 1980 – educational goals added to the Day Care Act Planning documents for early education and pre-school education from the 1990´s Big curriculum reform started as a result of the Pre-School reform National Core Curriculum for Pre-school Education 2000 Pressure to develop and define the pedagogy of younger children Government Resolution ConcerningGovernment Resolution Concerning the National Policy Definition on Early Childhood Education and Care 2002 National Curriculum Guidelines on ECEC in Finland 2003, revised 2005

12 12 Tarja Kahiluoto 11. National Curriculum Guidelines on ECEC in Finland Based on National Policy Definitions, 2002 : A national plan is needed for steering the content and quality of ECEC Made by National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health in an open dialogue Introduced 2003, reviewed 2005 Framework curriculum Lays down the objectives and principles for ECEC Aims to promote the provision of ECEC on equal terms throughout the country A recommendation for municipalities Provides the basis for - municipal and unit based curriculum and individual plans

13 13 Tarja Kahiluoto 12. National Curriculum Guidelines on ECEC Well-being of the child at focus Pedagogy: care, education and teaching integrated as a whole What is meaningful and characteristic for children The team of educators – multi-professional communities Process aims:Goals to the work of educators and the environment Content orientations - no performance requirements for children ECEC partnership: participation and empowerment of families Inclusive perspective to special needs Appreciation of different language and cultural backgrounds Continuity between ECEC and school

14 14 Tarja Kahiluoto 13. National Core Curriculum for Pre-school Education to improve children's learning conditions to smooth out individual differences in children's readiness to start school To learn through play Child-centered approach: guiding education Core themes: language and interaction, mathematics, ethics and philosophy, environmental and natural studies, health, physical and motor development, art and culture Socio-constructivist learning conception – the active role of the child and child participation is important

15 15 Tarja Kahiluoto State subsidies for day care services, about 33 % of costs State subsidy for pre-school education 42 % of costs Local tax revenues and Client fees, about 14 % of day care costs One day care place/ child/ year = about Pre-school education / child / year about Total expenditure for day care for 0-6-year-old children and pre- school education for 6-year-old children is about 1,1 % of GDP 14. Funding ECEC services, 2008

16 16 Tarja Kahiluoto 15. Staff Qualifications in Day care Centres At least a vocational qualification in the field of social welfare and health care is required One in three of the staff must have a higher education level degree (Bachelor of Education, Master of Education or Bachelor of Social Services) Photo Päivi Lindberg

17 17 Tarja Kahiluoto 16. Staff Qualifications in Family Day care The family child minder is required to have a suitable education –Qualification for Family Child Minders, from 2000 –This competence based vocational qualification is recommended Exception: in group family day care with 3 child minders one minder shall have a suitable vocational qualification.

18 18 Tarja Kahiluoto 17. Staff Qualifications in Pre-School - Kindergarten teachers with university qualifications (lower university dergrees, bachelor of Education, - Pre-primary school teachers with a higher university degree, about 5 years,

19 19 Tarja Kahiluoto Day care centres one to seven for children 3-6 years (full-time) one to thirteen for children 3-6 years (part-time) one to four for children under 3 years (full/part time) Family day care one to four, including minders own children one part time pre-school or school-aged child In pre-school education maximum group-size 20 recommendation 18. Adult-child ratios

20 20 Tarja Kahiluoto 19. Client Fees in Day Care Fees are based on the size and income of the family Maximum fee 233 / child/month Maximum fee for the second child 210 /month For each additional child 46,6 /month Free off charge for low income families Client fees cover about 14 % of day care costs All necessary meals are included

21 21 Tarja Kahiluoto Children in Municipal and Private Day Care, 2008, % of children

22 22 Tarja Kahiluoto Care arrangements of children, 2008 Children under 7 Private daycare allowance 4,3 % Municipal daycare centre 36,4 % Municipal family daycare 12,4 % Other 10,4 % Child home care allowance 23,9% Parenthood allowance 12,6 %

23 23 Tarja Kahiluoto Care arrangements of children, 2008 Children under 3 Child home care allowance 38,6 % Municipal daycare centre 15,0 % Other 4,1 % Private daycare allowance 2,5 % Municipal family daycare 10,9 % Parenthood allowance 29,0 %

24 24 Tarja Kahiluoto Care arrangements of children, 2008 Children under 3-6 Municipal daycare centre 53,0 % Municipal family daycare 13,5 % Other 15,2 % Private daycare allowance 5,7 % Child home care allowance 12,6 %

25 25 Tarja Kahiluoto Trends in children´s day care places


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