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Using Rewards within School-wide PBIS Rob Horner Steve Goodman University of Oregon Michigan Department of Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Using Rewards within School-wide PBIS Rob Horner Steve Goodman University of Oregon Michigan Department of Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Rewards within School-wide PBIS Rob Horner Steve Goodman University of Oregon Michigan Department of Education

2 Purposes  Define the challenge faced in many schools as they consider the use of rewards.  Share research foundation  Provide examples of reward use at all grade levels  Handout: “Rewards”

3 Start where we all agree  Our goal is to create a learning environment where students are engaged and successful.  Schools should teach, support, and encourage students to be “self-managers”  Student should not “depend” on rewards to behave well.  We want students to sustain and expand the skills they learn in school to life experiences beyond school.

4 “Rewards” defined  A presumed positive event/activity/object  Contrast with “reinforcer” which is change in behavior as a result of contingent delivery of a consequence. For “positive reinforcement” the event “is” positive For “reward” the event is presumed to be positive.

5 Main Messages  Rewards are a core feature of building a positive school culture.  Rewards make a difference  Initial behavior change  Sustained behavior change (Doolittle, 2006)  Rewards can be used badly  But they do NOT inhibit intrinsic motivation  Rewards can be used effectively in all school contexts.

6 The Challenge  “In our school the use of rewards is seen by several faculty members as:” Expensive Time consuming/ effortful Unnecessary “they should know how to behave by now” Inappropriate  “Rewards are fine for elementary school but are ineffective and inappropriate in middle or high school.”

7 The Challenge  The use of rewards will damage “intrinsic motivation” and actually result in reduction of desired behaviors.  “…although rewards can control people’s behavior …the primary negative effect of rewards is that they tend to forestall self- regulation.”  Deci et al., 1999 p. 659

8 National Education Association, 1991  “The expectation of reward can actually undermine intrinsic motivation and creativity of performance…A wide variety of rewards have now been tested, and everything from good-player awards to marshmallows produces the expected decrements in intrinsic motivation and creative performance…  Tegano et al., 1991 p. 119

9 Examples  Concerns you have encountered, Personally, or With Colleagues

10 What is the empirical foundation?  Harlow, Harlow & Meyer (1950) Rhesus monkeys  Would solve problems (puzzles) without obtaining rewards (no food, water, etc).  Presumption was that problem solving was “intrinsically motivated”

11 Deci et al., 1971 (three studies)  College Students (doing puzzles, writing newspaper “headlines”)  Phase 1: Observe time spent on task  Phase 2: Reward half the group for working  Phase 3: Observe time on task (no rewards)

12 Research Simulation

13 Since 1970  Conceptual Debate Definitions of “intrinsic motivation”  “Behavior controlled by unprogrammed consequences” (Mawhinney et al., 1989) Four different conceptual models  Overjustification  Cognitive Evaluation  Mind-body dualism  Hedonistic definition  Over 100 Empirical Studies Reiss & Sushinsky (1975; 1976) Cameron & Pierce, 1994 Deci, Koestner & Ryan, 1999 Cameron, Banko & Pierce, Lepper, Keavney, & Drake, 1996 Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett & Little, 2004 Reiss, 2005

14 What do we know?  Be clear about what you define as a “reward”  We can use rewards badly If rewards are delivered ambiguously If what we deliver is not a “reward” from the learner’s perspective. (Reward as Punisher) If partial rewards are delivered when full reward is expected/ promised (Reward as Punisher) Rules for getting a reward create physiological pressure (Reward as Punisher) If large rewards are delivered briefly and then withdrawn completely

15 What do we know?  Rewards are effective when used: To build new skills or sustain desired skills, with contingent delivery of rewards for specific behavior, and gradually faded over time.  Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett, Little, 2004 “In terms of the overall effects of reward, our meta-analysis indicates no evidence for detrimental effects of reward on measures of intrinsic motivation.”  Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001 p.21

16 What do we know?  “For high-interest tasks, verbal rewards are found to increase free choice and task interest. This finding replicates”  Cameron and Pierce, 1994; Deci et al., 1999).  “When tasks … are of low initial interest, rewards increase free-choice, and intrinsic motivation…”  Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001 p.21

17 What do we know?  …programs that show increased intrinsic motivation are those programs that incorporate the elements of good, comprehensive behavioral intervention: Relatively immediate reinforcement Generalization strategies Individualized Intervention  “The implication is that any blanket rejection of programmed reinforcement … is entirely unwarranted.”  Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett, Little, 2004 p. 358

18 What do we know?  “Negative effects of rewards are produced when rewards signify failure or are loosely tied to behavior.” (e.g. “Darin, you got half the work done so you get half the reward.”)  Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001  These findings indicate that negative effects of reward do not persist over time when task performance is rewarded on repeated occasions.  Davidson & Bucher, 1978  Feingold & Mahoney, 1975  Mawhinney, Dickenson & Taylor, 1989  Vasta, Andrewss, McLaughlin & Stripe, 1978

19 Current Research conducted within Educational Contexts  Vasta, & Stirpe…1979 Behavior Modification  Feingold & Mahoney, 1975  Roanne, Fisher & McDonough 2003 JABA  Flora & Flora College students..rewarded in elementary school  Akin-Little & Little 2004 JBE

20 Mean Total Responses Exp Group Baseline 1 Reward Baseline 2 Baseline 3 Feingold and Mahoney, 1975 Behavior Therapy : Five Second Graders Rate after reward was higher than in Baseline Follow-up showed rates higher than either BL

21 Baseline Rewards BL2 Follow up Mean Number of Pages Completed Experimental Group Ten 3 rd and 4 th grade students Rate during Follow up was higher than either Baseline

22 Baseline Rewards BL2 Follow up Number of Pages Completed Subject 6

23 Baseline Reward Baseline Follow-up Number of Pages Completed Subject 8 Initial Drop, but rapid recovery as fluency developed

24 Flora and Flora Psychological Record, 1999  171 undergraduates at Youngstown State University  Did they participate in “Book it” in elementary school (pizza for reading)  In , 22 million elementary school students participated in “Book it”  Also asked if parents rewarded reading with money.  How much do they read, do they enjoy reading, did “book it” or “parent rewards” affect reading? Measure of “intrinsic motivation”

25 N = 107

26 N = 51

27 Flora and Flora Results  Women read more, and women had higher “intrinsic motivation”  “Neither being reinforced with money or pizza increased or decreased the amount that college students read, nor influenced their intrinsic motivation for reading.  Answers to direct questions about “Book it” … indicate that when a child is extrinsically reinforced for reading, the child will increase the amount read, enjoyment of reading may increase, and if they do not yet know how to read fluently, the program may help the child learn to read.”  Flora & Flora 1999 p. 3

28 Amount Read Enjoyment Help to Learn to Read Amount Read Enjoyment Help to Learn to Read Decrease No Effect Increase 107 College Students who had been in “Book it” 51 Parents of Students in “Book it” Flora & Flora 1999

29 “ What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently ” -- Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup Interviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400 companies.  Create working environments where employees:  1. Know what is expected  2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly  3. Receive recognition each week for good work.  4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention  5. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve  6. Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend.”  7. Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important  8. See the people around them committed to doing a good job  9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)  10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.

30 “ What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently ” -- Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup Interviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400 companies.  Create working environments where employees:  1. Know what is expected  2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly  3. Receive recognition each week for good work.  4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention  5. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve  6. Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend.”  7. Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important  8. See the people around them committed to doing a good job  9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)  10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.

31 Summary  We place students at great risk by not using rewards.  The claims that rewards are dangerous are vastly over-stated  Rewards can create reduction in desired behavior, especially when (a) delivered globally, (b) delivered in a manner that creates physiological pressure, or (c) when a lesser level of reward is provided (e.g. punishment).

32 Examples  Reward the “behavior” not the “person” Not good: “you are selected as student of the week, congratulations? Good: “You were working hard, on-task and quiet during independent seat work…that is respectful of others trying to get their work done… nice job.”

33 Examples  Use reward systems that have multiple effects: Reward for Student A Reward for the students who saw Student A be recognized Reward for all students in Student A’s class

34 Action: Rate your school culture 1. Use a student perspective 2. Use a staff perspective Low High Predictable Consistent Positive Safe

35 Examples  School-wide  Classroom  Individual Student  Faculty/staff

36 School-wide formal recognitions Rewards that are more public in presentation More distant in time from demonstration of behavior and presentation of reward

37 School-wide Acknowledgement Plan (cont.)  Criteria definition Who is eligible, how often award is delivered, how many students receive award Should be implemented consistently Strict criteria are needed for more public awards (student of month) Looser criteria for awards distributed at higher rate (recess tickets)  Presentation Location and form in which award is presented School assembly, classroom, privately  Dissemination Bulletin boards, newsletters, parent letters

38 School-wide Acknowledgement Plan: Example #1 more formal system  Title “Self-Manager”  Criteria Satisfactory grades Follow school rules No discipline referrals Class work completed Five staff signatures (for example, teacher, teaching assistant) Students listed in office for all staff to review  Presentation Monthly award assembly  Award Button Privileges  In hallways without pass  Early lunch  Self-manager lunch table  Early release (1-2 min. max) from class when appropriate  Dissemination Honor list in classroom Parent notes

39 School-wide Acknowledge Plan: Example #2 less formal system  Title “Gotcha”  Criteria Demonstration of school-wide expected behavior  Presentation Individual staff member  Award Sign in the honor roll log at office Sticker Monthly raffle at awards assembly  Dissemination Signed awards log kept at office (name and room number)  Title “Gotcha”  Criteria Demonstration of school-wide expected behavior  Presentation Individual staff member  Award Sign in the honor roll log at office Sticker Monthly raffle at awards assembly  Dissemination Signed awards log kept at office (name and room number)

40 Special Certificates

41 Student of Month: Add social component to selection criteria Posted on Riverton Elementary Website Portage Community HS Woodward Elementary Jolman Elementary

42 Schoolwide Public Feedback on Following Behavior Expectations

43 Celebrations Loftis Elementary December- Snacks, prizes, awards January- Movie and popcorn M. L. King Elementary Celebration dance Lincoln Park: Monthly rewards for students earning 4 C.R.E.W. tickets in the month.

44 Schoolwide “quick” acknowledgements Rewards that are quickly presented in the presence of the behavior

45 Many schools use a ticket system Tied into school expectations Specific feedback on student’s behavior Provides visible acknowledge of appropriate behavior for student Helps to remind staff to provide acknowledgements  Jose R. L.M. Kalamazoo Central High School

46 Tickets used in Raffle System

47 Green Meadow Elementary Cutting the Principal’s Tie Students receive tickets for being Respectful, Safe, or Responsible. Tickets are placed in container The principal draws a ticket and that student gets to cut the principal's tie. Students receive picture of cutting the tie, the piece of the tie they cut, and a certificate. Raffle System

48 Daily Drawing Special Lunch Seating Invite 3 Friends Bad Axe Intermediate Daily Pick of the Pride Raffle System

49 Classroom Reward Systems Procedures to reward behavior for entire class

50 Classroom Reward Systems Holland Heights Special Lunch Table for Class with Enough Tickets Lincoln Park Ice Cream Treat

51 Goal Classroom Reward Systems Providing Visual Feedback

52 Bad Axe Intermediate 5 - Principal reads story 10- First class at lunch min. of extra gym time 20- Extra recess 25- Movie and treat Orchard View Early Elementary

53 Individual Student Reward Systems As a component of Targeted or Intensive Individualized Behavior Support System

54 Behavior Education Program: Daily Progress Reports

55 Staff Reward System Procedures to encourage staff participation and improve consistency of implementation

56 Rewarding Staff Behavior Beach staff recognition lunch Oakland Schools certificate of training Franklin staff acknowledge each other Parchment Central staff celebration Share Data with Staff

57 Sustainability “Keeping it going” and “Doing it better”

58 Make it easy to use rewards Visual reminders for staff Tickets and pen on lanyard Computer Printed stickers Stacks of tickets glued on edge

59 Parent/Teacher Association provided teacher name stamps Reward tickets and criteria on lanyard Write out class tickets for week, reward when appropriate, check whose name remains

60 Getting students involved Five student names are selected from mug. These students then identify others who have followed the school rules. Make it easy to track rewards

61 Acquiring back- up rewards Thank You Note Community Sponsor In one school, 8th grade language arts students write community organizations for support of reward program

62 Acquiring back-up rewards Some schools use items that students no longer want: Students are asked to bring in various items that might be discarded but in good shape (e.g., toys from fast food kid’s meals) Other students can they “purchase” these with the tokens earned by following the school rules

63 Institutionalized Memory PBS Handbook: Includes reward procedures Lincoln Park Office Scrapbook Milwood Middle School Central High School

64 Criteria: 80% on EBS Survey and achieved (reward system) on TIC n = 11 n = 14 n = 31 A. Campbell

65 Reward Audit

66 Summary  Rewards are effective when Tied to specific behaviors Delivered soon after the behavior Age appropriate (actually valued by student) Delivered frequently Gradually faded away

67 School-wide Acknowledgement Plan (cont.)  Criteria definition Who is eligible, how often award is delivered, how many students receive award Should be implemented consistently Strict criteria are needed for more public awards (student of month) Looser criteria for awards distributed at higher rate (recess tickets)  Presentation Location and form in which award is presented School assembly, classroom, privately  Dissemination Bulletin boards, newsletters, parent letters

68 Reward Audit NameCriterion for Earning How Delivered Consistent with School- wide Imp Status Formal School-wide “Quick” School-wide Classroom Individual Student Staff Sustaining Strategy: How to inform new staff and substitutes Start Here

69 Selected Bibliography Schoolwide Formal Recognitions Metzler, C. W., Biglan, A., Rusby, J. C., & Sprague, J. R. (2001). Evaluation of a comprehensive behavior management program to improve school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children, 24(4), Luiselli, J. K., Putnam, R. F., Sunderland, M. (2002). Longitudinal evaluation of behavior support intervention in a public middle school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(3), Schoowide “Quick” Acknowledgements Metzler, C. W., Biglan, A., Rusby, J. C., & Sprague, J. R. (2001). Evaluation of a comprehensive behavior management program to improve school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children, 24(4), Sprague, J., Walker, H., Golly, A., White, K., Myers, D. R., & Shannon, T. (2001).Translating research into effective practice: The effects of a universal staff and student intervention on indicators of discipline and school safety. Education and Treatment of Children, 24(4),

70 Classroom Reward Systems Lewis, T. J., Powers, L. J., Kelk, M. J., & Newcomer, L. L. (2002). Reducing the problem behaviors on the playground: An investigation of the application of schoolwide positive behavior supports. Psychology in the Schools, 39(2), Skinner, C. H., Williams, R. L., & Neddenriep, C. E. (2004). Using interdependent group- oriented reinforcement to enhance academic performance in general education classrooms. School Psychology Review, 33, Lohrmann, S. & Talerico, J. (2004). Anchor the boat: A classwide intervention to reduce problem behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(2), Individual Student Reward System Metzler, C. W., Biglan, A., Rusby, J. C., & Sprague, J. R. (2001). Evaluation of a comprehensive behavior management program to improve school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children, 24(4), Crone, D. A., Horner, R. H., & Hawken, L. S. (2004). Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools: The Behavior Education Program. New York: The Guilford Press. Staff Reward System Sprague, J., Walker, H., Golly, A., White, K., Myers, D. R., & Shannon, T. (2001).Translating research into effective practice: The effects of a universal staff and student intervention on indicators of discipline and school safety. Education and Treatment of Children, 24(4),


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