Presentation on theme: "Using Rewards within School-wide PBIS"— Presentation transcript:
1Using Rewards within School-wide PBIS Rob Horner Steve GoodmanUniversity of Oregon Michigan Department of Education
2PurposesDefine the challenge faced in many schools as they consider the use of rewards.Share research foundationProvide examples of reward use at all grade levelsHandout: “Rewards”
3Start where we all agree Our goal is to create a learning environment where students are engaged and successful.Schools should teach, support, and encourage students to be “self-managers”Student should not “depend” on rewards to behave well.We want students to sustain and expand the skills they learn in school to life experiences beyond school.
4“Rewards” defined A presumed positive event/activity/object Contrast with “reinforcer” which is change in behavior as a result of contingent delivery of a consequence.For “positive reinforcement” the event “is” positiveFor “reward” the event is presumed to be positive.
5Main MessagesRewards are a core feature of building a positive school culture.Rewards make a differenceInitial behavior changeSustained behavior change (Doolittle, 2006)Rewards can be used badlyBut they do NOT inhibit intrinsic motivationRewards can be used effectively in all school contexts.
6The Challenge“In our school the use of rewards is seen by several faculty members as:”ExpensiveTime consuming/ effortfulUnnecessary“they should know how to behave by now”Inappropriate“Rewards are fine for elementary school but are ineffective and inappropriate in middle or high school.”
7The ChallengeThe use of rewards will damage “intrinsic motivation” and actually result in reduction of desired behaviors.“…although rewards can control people’s behavior …the primary negative effect of rewards is that they tend to forestall self-regulation.”Deci et al., 1999 p. 659
8National Education Association, 1991 “The expectation of reward can actually undermine intrinsic motivation and creativity of performance…A wide variety of rewards have now been tested, and everything from good-player awards to marshmallows produces the expected decrements in intrinsic motivation and creative performance…Tegano et al., p. 119
9ExamplesConcerns you have encountered,Personally, orWith Colleagues
10What is the empirical foundation? Harlow, Harlow & Meyer (1950)Rhesus monkeysWould solve problems (puzzles) without obtaining rewards (no food, water, etc).Presumption was that problem solving was “intrinsically motivated”
11Deci et al., 1971 (three studies) College Students (doing puzzles, writing newspaper “headlines”)Phase 1: Observe time spent on taskPhase 2: Reward half the group for workingPhase 3: Observe time on task (no rewards)
13Since 1970 Conceptual Debate Over 100 Empirical Studies Definitions of “intrinsic motivation”“Behavior controlled by unprogrammed consequences” (Mawhinney et al., 1989)Four different conceptual modelsOverjustificationCognitive EvaluationMind-body dualismHedonistic definitionOver 100 Empirical StudiesReiss & Sushinsky (1975; 1976)Cameron & Pierce, 1994Deci, Koestner & Ryan, 1999Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001Lepper, Keavney, & Drake, 1996Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett & Little, 2004Reiss, 2005
14What do we know? Be clear about what you define as a “reward” We can use rewards badlyIf rewards are delivered ambiguouslyIf what we deliver is not a “reward” from the learner’s perspective. (Reward as Punisher)If partial rewards are delivered when full reward is expected/ promised (Reward as Punisher)Rules for getting a reward create physiological pressure (Reward as Punisher)If large rewards are delivered briefly and then withdrawn completely
15What do we know? Rewards are effective when used: To build new skills or sustain desired skills, withcontingent delivery of rewards for specific behavior, andgradually faded over time.Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett, Little, 2004“In terms of the overall effects of reward, our meta-analysis indicates no evidence for detrimental effects of reward on measures of intrinsic motivation.”Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001 p.21
16What do we know?“For high-interest tasks, verbal rewards are found to increase free choice and task interest. This finding replicates”Cameron and Pierce, 1994; Deci et al., 1999).“When tasks … are of low initial interest, rewards increase free-choice, and intrinsic motivation…”Cameron, Banko & Pierce, p.21
17What do we know?…programs that show increased intrinsic motivation are those programs that incorporate the elements of good, comprehensive behavioral intervention:Relatively immediate reinforcementGeneralization strategiesIndividualized Intervention“The implication is that any blanket rejection of programmed reinforcement … is entirely unwarranted.”Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett, Little, p. 358
18What do we know?“Negative effects of rewards are produced when rewards signify failure or are loosely tied to behavior.” (e.g. “Darin, you got half the work done so you get half the reward.”)Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001These findings indicate that negative effects of reward do not persist over time when task performance is rewarded on repeated occasions.Davidson & Bucher, 1978Feingold & Mahoney, 1975Mawhinney, Dickenson & Taylor, 1989Vasta, Andrewss, McLaughlin & Stripe, 1978
19Current Research conducted within Educational Contexts Vasta, & Stirpe…1979 Behavior ModificationFeingold & Mahoney, 1975Roanne, Fisher & McDonough 2003 JABAFlora & Flora 1999.College students ..rewarded in elementary schoolAkin-Little & Little 2004 JBE
20Feingold and Mahoney, 1975 Behavior Therapy : Five Second Graders Baseline 1 Reward Baseline Baseline 3Follow-up showed rates higher than either BLMean TotalResponsesExpGroupRate after reward was higher than in Baseline
21Baseline Rewards BL2 Follow up ExperimentalGroupTen 3rd and 4th grade studentsBaseline Rewards BL Follow upRate during Follow up was higher than either BaselineMeanNumber ofPagesCompleted
23Initial Drop, but rapid recovery as fluency developed Baseline Reward Baseline Follow-upSubject 8Initial Drop, but rapid recovery as fluency developedNumber ofPagesCompleted
24Flora and Flora Psychological Record, 1999 171 undergraduates at Youngstown State UniversityDid they participate in “Book it” in elementary school (pizza for reading)In , 22 million elementary school students participated in “Book it”Also asked if parents rewarded reading with money.How much do they read, do they enjoy reading, did “book it” or “parent rewards” affect reading? Measure of “intrinsic motivation”
27Flora and Flora Results Women read more, and women had higher “intrinsic motivation”“Neither being reinforced with money or pizza increased or decreased the amount that college students read, nor influenced their intrinsic motivation for reading.Answers to direct questions about “Book it” … indicate that when a child is extrinsically reinforced for reading, the child will increase the amount read, enjoyment of reading may increase, and if they do not yet know how to read fluently, the program may help the child learn to read.”Flora & Flora 1999 p. 3
28Decrease No Effect Increase Decrease No Effect Increase Amount Read EnjoymentEnjoymentDecrease No Effect IncreaseDecrease No Effect IncreaseHelp to Learn to ReadHelp to Learn to Read107 College Students who had been in “Book it” Parents of Students in “Book it”Flora & Flora 1999
29“What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently” “What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently” Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup Interviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400 companies.Create working environments where employees:1. Know what is expected2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly3. Receive recognition each week for good work.4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention5. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve6. Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend.”7. Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important8. See the people around them committed to doing a good job9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.
30“What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently” “What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently” Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup Interviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400 companies.Create working environments where employees:1. Know what is expected2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly3. Receive recognition each week for good work.4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention5. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve6. Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend.”7. Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important8. See the people around them committed to doing a good job9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.
31Summary We place students at great risk by not using rewards. The claims that rewards are dangerous are vastly over-statedRewards can create reduction in desired behavior, especially when (a) delivered globally, (b) delivered in a manner that creates physiological pressure, or (c) when a lesser level of reward is provided (e.g. punishment).
32Examples Reward the “behavior” not the “person” Not good: “you are selected as student of the week, congratulations?Good: “You were working hard, on-task and quiet during independent seat work…that is respectful of others trying to get their work done… nice job.”
33Examples Use reward systems that have multiple effects: Reward for Student AReward for the students who saw Student A be recognizedReward for all students in Student A’s class
34Predictable Consistent Positive Safe Action: Rate your school culture 1. Use a student perspective 2. Use a staff perspectiveLow HighPredictableConsistentPositiveSafe
36School-wide formal recognitions Rewards that are more public in presentationMore distant in time from demonstration of behavior and presentation of reward
37School-wide Acknowledgement Plan (cont.) Criteria definitionWho is eligible, how often award is delivered, how many students receive awardShould be implemented consistentlyStrict criteria are needed for more public awards (student of month) Looser criteria for awards distributed at higher rate (recess tickets)PresentationLocation and form in which award is presentedSchool assembly, classroom, privatelyDisseminationBulletin boards, newsletters, parent letters
38School-wide Acknowledgement Plan: Example #1 more formal system Title“Self-Manager”CriteriaSatisfactory gradesFollow school rulesNo discipline referralsClass work completedFive staff signatures (for example, teacher, teaching assistant)Students listed in office for all staff to reviewPresentationMonthly award assemblyAwardButtonPrivilegesIn hallways without passEarly lunchSelf-manager lunch tableEarly release (1-2 min. max) from class when appropriateDisseminationHonor list in classroomParent notesSchool-wide Acknowledgement Plan: Example #1 more formal system
39School-wide Acknowledge Plan: Example #2 less formal system Title“Gotcha”CriteriaDemonstration of school-wide expected behaviorPresentationIndividual staff memberAwardSign in the honor roll log at officeStickerMonthly raffle at awards assemblyDisseminationSigned awards log kept at office (name and room number)School-wide Acknowledge Plan: Example #2 less formal system
41Student of Month: Add social component to selection criteria Posted on Riverton Elementary WebsiteJolman ElementaryPortage Community HSWoodward ElementaryStudent of Month: Add social component to selection criteria
42Schoolwide Public Feedback on Following Behavior Expectations The bottom left picture is from Mellen Elementary (U.P.) it is outside office and displays a container with “gems” added to container when student is “caught following rules”The bootom right picture is from Loftis Elementary and is outside office. Letters represent first initial of teacher name. Students names are displayed for month- these are students who did not receive an office discipline referral.
43Celebrations Celebration dance Lincoln Park: Loftis Elementary Monthly rewards for students earning 4 C.R.E.W. tickets in the month.Loftis ElementaryDecember- Snacks, prizes, awardsJanuary- Movie and popcornM. L. King ElementaryCelebration dance
44Schoolwide “quick” acknowledgements Rewards that are quickly presented in the presence of the behavior
45Many schools use a ticket system Tied into school expectationsSpecific feedback on student’s behaviorProvides visible acknowledge of appropriate behavior for studentHelps to remind staff to provide acknowledgementsJose R.L.M.Kalamazoo Central High School
47Green Meadow Elementary Cutting the Principal’s TieStudents receive tickets for being Respectful, Safe, or Responsible.Tickets are placed in container The principal draws a ticket and that student gets to cut the principal's tie.Students receive picture of cutting the tie, the piece of the tie they cut, and a certificate.Each CREW member is given tape to tape principal to wallRaffle System
48Daily Drawing Special Lunch Seating Invite 3 Friends Bad Axe IntermediateDaily DrawingSpecial Lunch SeatingInvite 3 FriendsDaily Pick of the PrideRaffle System
49Classroom Reward Systems Procedures to reward behavior for entire class
50Classroom Reward Systems Holland HeightsSpecial Lunch Table for Class with Enough TicketsLincoln ParkIce Cream Treat
51Classroom Reward Systems GoalProviding Visual FeedbackThe bottom left picture is from Mellen Elementary (U.P.) it is outside office and displays a container with “gems” added to container when student is “caught following rules”The bootom right picture is from Loftis Elementary and is outside office. Letters represent first initial of teacher name. Students names are displayed for month- these are students who did not receive an office discipline referral.
52Orchard View Early Elementary Bad Axe IntermediateCLASS PASS5 - Principal reads story10 - First class at lunchmin. of extra gym time20 - Extra recess25 - Movie and treatOrchard View Early Elementary
53Individual Student Reward Systems As a component of Targeted or Intensive Individualized Behavior Support System
55Staff Reward SystemProcedures to encourage staff participation and improve consistency of implementation
56Rewarding Staff Behavior Share Data with StaffBeach staff recognition lunchFranklin staff acknowledge each otherParchment Central staff celebrationOakland Schools certificate of training
57“Keeping it going” and “Doing it better” Sustainability“Keeping it going” and “Doing it better”
58Make it easy to use rewards Visual reminders for staffComputer Printed stickersTickets and pen on lanyardStacks of tickets glued on edgeMake it easy to use rewards
59Parent/Teacher Association provided teacher name stamps Reward tickets and criteria on lanyardWrite out class tickets for week, reward when appropriate, check whose name remains
60Getting students involved Make it easy to track rewardsGetting students involvedFive student names are selected from mug. These students then identify others who have followed the school rules.
61Acquiring back-up rewards In one school, 8th grade language arts students write community organizations for support of reward programCommunity SponsorThank You Note
62Acquiring back-up rewards Some schools use items that students no longer want:Students are asked to bring in various items that might be discarded but in good shape (e.g., toys from fast food kid’s meals)Other students can they “purchase” these with the tokens earned by following the school rules
63Institutionalized Memory PBS Handbook: Includes reward proceduresMilwood Middle SchoolCentral High SchoolLincoln Park Office Scrapbook
64Criteria: 80% on EBS Survey and achieved (reward system) on TIC Complete data for each on SWIS, TIC (Spring), Self Assessment- Survey (Spring)A. Campbell
66Summary Rewards are effective when Tied to specific behaviors Delivered soon after the behaviorAge appropriate (actually valued by student)Delivered frequentlyGradually faded away
67School-wide Acknowledgement Plan (cont.) Criteria definitionWho is eligible, how often award is delivered, how many students receive awardShould be implemented consistentlyStrict criteria are needed for more public awards (student of month) Looser criteria for awards distributed at higher rate (recess tickets)PresentationLocation and form in which award is presentedSchool assembly, classroom, privatelyDisseminationBulletin boards, newsletters, parent letters
68Reward Audit Start Here Name Criterion for Earning How Delivered Consistent with School-wideImpStatusFormalSchool-wide“Quick” School-wideClassroomIndividual StudentStaffSustaining Strategy: How to inform new staff and substitutesStart Here
69Selected Bibliography Schoolwide Formal RecognitionsMetzler, C. W., Biglan, A., Rusby, J. C., & Sprague, J. R. (2001). Evaluation of a comprehensive behavior management program to improve school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children, 24(4),Luiselli, J. K., Putnam, R. F., Sunderland, M. (2002). Longitudinal evaluation of behavior support intervention in a public middle school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(3),Schoowide “Quick” AcknowledgementsSprague, J., Walker, H., Golly, A., White, K., Myers, D. R., & Shannon, T. (2001).Translating research into effective practice: The effects of a universal staff and student intervention on indicators of discipline and school safety. Education and Treatment of Children, 24(4),
70Classroom Reward Systems Lewis, T. J., Powers, L. J., Kelk, M. J., & Newcomer, L. L. (2002). Reducing the problem behaviors on the playground: An investigation of the application of schoolwide positive behavior supports. Psychology in the Schools, 39(2),Skinner, C. H., Williams, R. L., & Neddenriep, C. E. (2004). Using interdependent group-oriented reinforcement to enhance academic performance in general education classrooms. School Psychology Review, 33,Lohrmann, S. & Talerico, J. (2004). Anchor the boat: A classwide intervention to reduce problem behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(2),Individual Student Reward SystemMetzler, C. W., Biglan, A., Rusby, J. C., & Sprague, J. R. (2001). Evaluation of a comprehensive behavior management program to improve school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children, 24(4),Crone, D. A., Horner, R. H., & Hawken, L. S. (2004). Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools: The Behavior Education Program. New York: The Guilford Press.Staff Reward SystemSprague, J., Walker, H., Golly, A., White, K., Myers, D. R., & Shannon, T. (2001).Translating research into effective practice: The effects of a universal staff and student intervention on indicators of discipline and school safety. Education and Treatment of Children, 24(4),