5 Past ResearchThe empirical evidence suggests that gender differences may be small (Eccles, 1992) and that both teachers and students contribute to these differences (Altermatt et al., 1998).
6 Research QuestionsDo boys and girls engage in different amounts and types of misbehavior?Will teachers use different strategies when disciplining boys and girls?
7 We examined inductive and correcting discipline strategies. Inductive discipline: explaining why misbehaviors are inappropriateCorrecting discipline: telling the student to behave correctly, inflicting a punishment, etc.We predict that teachers will use inductive discipline more with girls and correcting more with boys.
8 Research QuestionsDo boys and girls engage in different amounts and types of misbehavior?Will teachers use different strategies when disciplining boys and girls?Do boys and girls respond differently to discipline?We predict that boys are more likely to cease their misbehavior after receiving correcting discipline, and girls after receiving inductive discipline.
9 Procedure We videotaped 8 hours of classroom interaction. Videotapes were made in two 5th grade classrooms at a private Catholic school.Girls: N=13, Boys: N=21We coded instances of student misbehavior, teacher discipline, and the result of the discipline (N=58).
11 ReliabilityWe coded 2 hours of data together, then coded 3 hours separately in order to calculate and establish inter-rater reliability.After inter-rater reliability was achieved, we coded the remainder of the data together.Misbehavior75%Discipline strategy83%Result100%
12 QuestionnairesBDIC: Beliefs on Discipline Inventory for Children (Wolfgang & Glickman, 1997).Assessed type of discipline preferred by students: inductive or correcting.
13 Example Question If I interrupt my teacher by talking to a neighbor: A. I should be moved away from others so that I don’t waste any more class time.B. I would like the teacher to tell me when I become disruptive and remind me of how it would make me feel if someone interrupted me.
14 Instances of Misbehavior Girls: N=13 z = .873, nsBoys: N=21
15 Types of Misbehavior BA – Being Away (X2 = .42, p = .52) DIS – Disruptive (X2 = .07, p = .79)SI – Side Involvement (X2 = .83, p = .36)
19 DiscussionThe current study’s results support a growing literature suggesting that boys and girls behave – and are treated – much more similarly than differently.Although there was little inductive discipline implemented, it seems that it would be a more effective means of disciplining students. In fact, students prefer inductive discipline.
20 Implications for Future Research Do students perceive themselves as being treated differently than one another based on gender?Has the anecdotal evidence hypersensitized teachers to treating boys and girls similarly?
21 Implications for Future Research Why do teachers tend to choose the correcting approach to discipline when students may, in fact, prefer inductive discipline?Suggestion: Teachers use correcting discipline to maintain order and flow of classroom environment.Are there differences in short versus long-term effectiveness when using one type of discipline or another?