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Historical Thinking is Critical Thinking!. QCRE / Question / Claim / Reason / Evidence / Question / Claim / Reason / Evidence.

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Presentation on theme: "Historical Thinking is Critical Thinking!. QCRE / Question / Claim / Reason / Evidence / Question / Claim / Reason / Evidence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Historical Thinking is Critical Thinking!

2 QCRE / Question / Claim / Reason / Evidence / Question / Claim / Reason / Evidence

3 Historians Ask Questions! / Why did something happen? / What was the impact of an event? / Who was responsible for an event? / Why did something happen? / What was the impact of an event? / Who was responsible for an event? QCRE

4 Historians Look for Answers! Historical argumentation requires the articulation of historical claims, explanation of the reasons for the claims, and the use of evidence to support the reasons. QCRE

5 Answers Require Evidence Using evidence requires the critical assessment of historical sources. QCRE

6 Thinking Like a Historian Evidence = Evaluation of a Source Contextualization of a Source Close Reading of a Source Corroboration of a Source Evidence = Evaluation of a Source Contextualization of a Source Close Reading of a Source Corroboration of a Source E = EC 3

7 Evaluating the Source / Before you examine a piece of evidence, ask yourself: / Who made this? (Or who wrote it?) Is this person believable? / What kind of evidence is it? (Diary entry? Police report? Newspaper article?) / When was this made? (A long or short time after the event? / Is it believable? / Before you examine a piece of evidence, ask yourself: / Who made this? (Or who wrote it?) Is this person believable? / What kind of evidence is it? (Diary entry? Police report? Newspaper article?) / When was this made? (A long or short time after the event? / Is it believable?

8 Evaluating the Source / When analyzing a source, there are characteristics that make a source more or less reliable, such as: / Credibility of the author / Commitment of author to the information? / Anonymous? / Signed under oath? / Motive for creating document / evidence / Witness or not? / When analyzing a source, there are characteristics that make a source more or less reliable, such as: / Credibility of the author / Commitment of author to the information? / Anonymous? / Signed under oath? / Motive for creating document / evidence / Witness or not?

9 Contextualization / In your mind, visualize: / What was going on at the time and place? / How did what was happening influence the creation of this source? / Why was it created? / In your mind, visualize: / What was going on at the time and place? / How did what was happening influence the creation of this source? / Why was it created?

10 Close Reading / As you read: / What claims does the author/creator make? / What evidence does the author/creator use to support the claims? / How does this document make me feel? / What words or phrases convince me that the argument is valid? / What information is left out? / As you read: / What claims does the author/creator make? / What evidence does the author/creator use to support the claims? / How does this document make me feel? / What words or phrases convince me that the argument is valid? / What information is left out?

11 Corroboration / Investigate: / What do other pieces of evidence say? / Am I finding the same information everywhere? / Am I finding different versions of the story? (If so, why?) / Where else could I look to find out about this? / Which pieces of evidence are or would be most believable? / Investigate: / What do other pieces of evidence say? / Am I finding the same information everywhere? / Am I finding different versions of the story? (If so, why?) / Where else could I look to find out about this? / Which pieces of evidence are or would be most believable?

12 Corroboration / What do you do if you find information from two pieces of evidence that contradict each other? How do you know which to believe?

13 H2W: How to Write (a history essay) / Introduction: / Recap the event (who, what, when, where) / Explain the historical question / Explain why the question is important / How do you answer the historical question—your “Claim.” / Introduction: / Recap the event (who, what, when, where) / Explain the historical question / Explain why the question is important / How do you answer the historical question—your “Claim.” QCRE

14 Contextualizing Paragraph / What is happening in history that makes your question important? / Provide a brief narrative of the event or issue in question. / What is happening in history that makes your question important? / Provide a brief narrative of the event or issue in question.

15 Supporting Paragraph / What is the strongest reason that supports your argument? / What is a quotation from your evidence or other example that will convince a skeptic of your argument. / Be sure to state the source of your evidence. / What is the strongest reason that supports your argument? / What is a quotation from your evidence or other example that will convince a skeptic of your argument. / Be sure to state the source of your evidence.

16 Rebuttal Paragraph / What is the strongest reason against your argument? / What is a quotation or other evidence that explains the other perspective? / Refute the opposing evidence. / What is the strongest reason against your argument? / What is a quotation or other evidence that explains the other perspective? / Refute the opposing evidence.

17 How to Refute / Challenge the author’s reliability. / Explain the influence of context. / Challenge the author’s facts or examples. / Challenge the author’s reliability. / Explain the influence of context. / Challenge the author’s facts or examples.

18 Conclusion / Recap the issue or event. / Explain why a reader should chose your argument over another perspective. / Connect your answer to the historical context. / Recap the issue or event. / Explain why a reader should chose your argument over another perspective. / Connect your answer to the historical context.

19 Sources / Nokes, Jeffery D., Building Students’ Historical Literacies: Learning to Read and Reason with Historical Texts and Evidence. N.Y.: Routledge, / Monte-Sano, Chauncey, et al. Reading, Thinking, and Writing About History. NY: Teacher’s College Press, / Wineburg, S., Martin, D., and Monte-Sano, C. Reading Like a Historian: Teaching literacy in middle and high school classrooms. NY: Teacher’s College Press, / Website: Stanford History Education Group, “Reading Like a Historian: Curriculum.” Accessed Aug. 17, 2014.http://sheg.stanford.edu/rlh / Nokes, Jeffery D., Building Students’ Historical Literacies: Learning to Read and Reason with Historical Texts and Evidence. N.Y.: Routledge, / Monte-Sano, Chauncey, et al. Reading, Thinking, and Writing About History. NY: Teacher’s College Press, / Wineburg, S., Martin, D., and Monte-Sano, C. Reading Like a Historian: Teaching literacy in middle and high school classrooms. NY: Teacher’s College Press, / Website: Stanford History Education Group, “Reading Like a Historian: Curriculum.” Accessed Aug. 17, 2014.http://sheg.stanford.edu/rlh


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