Presentation on theme: "How can you think like a Historian?"— Presentation transcript:
1 How can you think like a Historian? “Not to know what happened before one was born is always to be a child.”Cicero 100 B.C.By PMcElhaney (Point Loma High)From Sam Wineburg’s Historical Thinking and Other Un-Natural Acts
2 How do Historians Reconstruct the Past? What do they do?Why study history?History serves as a bank of examples for contemplating present problems.What tools do they use?
3 Historians use the following tools to investigate and reconstruct the past. Historical ImaginationMulticultural PerspectivePoint of ViewCompare and ContrastCause and EffectAnalyzingDistinguishing Fact FromOpinionEvaluatingPolitical HistorySocial HistoryMilitary HistoryComparative HistoryEconomic HistoryInterpretationBias/SubjectivityEvidencePrimary SourceArtifactContextObjective; ObjectivityHistoriographyFrame of ReferenceCredibility
4 Define As Many of these as possible. Historical ImaginationMulticultural PerspectivePoint of ViewCompare and ContrastCause and EffectAnalyzingDistinguishing Fact FromOpinion: EvaluatingPolitical HistorySocial HistoryMilitary HistoryComparative HistoryEconomic HistoryInterpretationBias/SubjectivityEvidencePrimary SourceArtifactContextObjective; ObjectivityHistoriographyFrame of ReferenceCredibility
5 One PagerTERM: Definition of term across the top of page (write neatly)Create a visual depiction of the term.This can be a diagram, image, chart, graph, or symbolsIn your own words write a brief explanation of how this term may be useful for students of history.
6 Think like a Historian, Look for: the author’s intention.biasevidenceargumentsourcesContext of the period the document was written
7 Contextual Thinking: Context of a document or event offers clues that help understanding. When, Where, How?What proceeded?What followed?Why the document or event took placeWho wrote or said itTo whom was it written?What purpose?What intent?What Consequence?
8 A.C.A.P.S. is a great strategy. To understand documents and the meaning they hold, analyze them according to this method:AuthorContextAudiencePurposeSignificance
9 How about a S.P.R.I.T.E.? S. Social P. Political R. Religious I. IntellectualT. TechnologicalE. Economic
10 Questions Kids should ask themselves: How is the past different than today?What is the significance of this event, person, place, or document…?What can the modern generation learn from the past?
11 Kids need toRead aloud and think aloud through the Historical Process.Think about people, places, and events in the past through the eyes of someone living in the past.balance present minded thinking with thinking in the pastMake connections and draw conclusions.
12 “Just the Facts”? Facts by themselves are meaningless. Facts are only important when we give them meaning.
13 Skilled Readers of History Talk to themselves as they read-The conversation ranges:Meaning of the textAuthor’s purpose, message, and personality/background-Think about why the author says what he says and what he means by saying it.
14 Contextual Thinkingor thinking about events through the perspective of the period it unfolded.
15 Context of an event or document includes: When, Where, HowWhat proceeded?What followed?Why the document or event took placeWho wrote or said itTo whom was it written or saidWhat purposeWhat intentWhat consequence
16 Students of History Need to: Talk to each otherWrite term papersDiscuss the significance of topics they studyDebateGet into the mind of the people who lived history!Search for cause and motiveInvestigate- values, perspectives,Students need to embrace beliefs not their own and argue them with zest.
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