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How can you think like a Historian? Not to know what happened before one was born is always to be a child. Cicero 100 B.C. By PMcElhaney (Point Loma High)

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Presentation on theme: "How can you think like a Historian? Not to know what happened before one was born is always to be a child. Cicero 100 B.C. By PMcElhaney (Point Loma High)"— Presentation transcript:

1 How can you think like a Historian? Not to know what happened before one was born is always to be a child. Cicero 100 B.C. By PMcElhaney (Point Loma High) From Sam Wineburgs Historical Thinking and Other Un-Natural Acts

2 How do Historians Reconstruct the Past? What do they do? What do they do? Why study history? Why study history? History serves as a bank of examples for contemplating present problems. History serves as a bank of examples for contemplating present problems. What tools do they use? What tools do they use?

3 Historians use the following tools to investigate and reconstruct the past. Historians use the following tools to investigate and reconstruct the past. 1. Historical Imagination 2. Multicultural Perspective 3. Point of View 4. Compare and Contrast 5. Cause and Effect 6. Analyzing 7. Distinguishing Fact From Opinion 8. Evaluating 9. Political History 10. Social History 11. Military History 12. Comparative History 13. Economic History 14. Interpretation 15. Bias/Subjectivity 16. Evidence 17. Primary Source 18. Artifact 19. Context 20. Objective; Objectivity 21. Historiography 22. Frame of Reference 23. Credibility

4 Define As Many of these as possible. Define As Many of these as possible. 1. Historical Imagination 2. Multicultural Perspective 3. Point of View 4. Compare and Contrast 5. Cause and Effect 6. Analyzing 7. Distinguishing Fact From 8. Opinion: Evaluating 9. Political History 10. Social History 11. Military History 12. Comparative History 13. Economic History 14. Interpretation 15. Bias/Subjectivity 16. Evidence 17. Primary Source 18. Artifact 19. Context 20. Objective; Objectivity 21. Historiography 22. Frame of Reference 23. Credibility

5 One Pager TERM: Definition of term across the top of page (write neatly) Create a visual depiction of the term. This can be a diagram, image, chart, graph, or symbols In your own words write a brief explanation of how this term may be useful for students of history.

6 Think like a Historian, Look for: the authors intention. the authors intention. bias bias evidence evidence argument argument sources sources Context of the period the document was written Context of the period the document was written

7 Contextual Thinking: Context of a document or event offers clues that help understanding. When, Where, How? When, Where, How? What proceeded? What proceeded? What followed? What followed? Why the document or event took place Why the document or event took place Who wrote or said it Who wrote or said it To whom was it written? To whom was it written? What purpose? What purpose? What intent? What intent? What Consequence? What Consequence?

8 A.C.A.P.S. is a great strategy. To understand documents and the meaning they hold, analyze them according to this method: To understand documents and the meaning they hold, analyze them according to this method: Author Author Context Context Audience Audience Purpose Purpose Significance Significance

9 How about a S.P.R.I.T.E.? S.Social S.Social P. Political P. Political R. Religious R. Religious I. Intellectual I. Intellectual T. Technological T. Technological E. Economic E. Economic

10 Questions Kids should ask themselves: How is the past different than today? How is the past different than today? What is the significance of this event, person, place, or document…? What is the significance of this event, person, place, or document…? What can the modern generation learn from the past? What can the modern generation learn from the past?

11 Kids need to Read aloud and think aloud through the Historical Process. Read aloud and think aloud through the Historical Process. Think about people, places, and events in the past through the eyes of someone living in the past. Think about people, places, and events in the past through the eyes of someone living in the past. balance present minded thinking with thinking in the past balance present minded thinking with thinking in the past Make connections and draw conclusions. Make connections and draw conclusions.

12 Just the Facts? Facts by themselves are meaningless. Facts by themselves are meaningless. Facts are only important when we give them meaning. Facts are only important when we give them meaning.

13 Skilled Readers of History Talk to themselves as they read- Talk to themselves as they read- The conversation ranges: The conversation ranges: Meaning of the text Meaning of the text Authors purpose, message, and personality/background- Authors purpose, message, and personality/background- Think about why the author says what he says and what he means by saying it. Think about why the author says what he says and what he means by saying it.

14 Contextual Thinking or thinking about events through the perspective of the period it unfolded. or thinking about events through the perspective of the period it unfolded.

15 Context of an event or document includes: When, Where, How When, Where, How What proceeded? What proceeded? What followed? What followed? Why the document or event took place Why the document or event took place Who wrote or said it Who wrote or said it To whom was it written or said To whom was it written or said What purpose What purpose What intent What intent What consequence What consequence

16 Students of History Need to: Talk to each other Talk to each other Write term papers Write term papers Discuss the significance of topics they study Discuss the significance of topics they study Debate Debate Get into the mind of the people who lived history! Get into the mind of the people who lived history! Search for cause and motive Search for cause and motive Investigate- values, perspectives, Investigate- values, perspectives, Students need to embrace beliefs not their own and argue them with zest. Students need to embrace beliefs not their own and argue them with zest.


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