Presentation on theme: "Solids, Liquids and Gases"— Presentation transcript:
1Solids, Liquids and Gases Chapter 16Solids, Liquids and Gases
2Kinetic Theory Explains how particles in matter behave. Three assumptions:1. All matter is composed of small particles (atoms, molecules, and ions).2. These particles are in constant, random motion.3. These particles are colliding with each other and the walls of their container.
3Kinetic TheoryImagine a room filled with tiny bouncing ping pong balls. That is what atoms are like!A very small amount of energy is lost with each collision.
4Forces holding particles together Thermal EnergyThermal energy = Kinetic energy + Potential energyMoving EnergyForces holding particles together
5Temperature Temperature: the measure of average kinetic energy Quick definition: How fast are the particles moving?Absolute Zero: no more thermal energy can be removed; particles barely moving at all.°C or 0 K (kelvin)
8Chemical & Physical Properties Chemical Properties: How a substance reacts. Examples: Flammability, reactions to lightChanges into a new substance during the reaction.Physical Properties: Characteristics you can observe. Examples: Color, boiling point, magneticDoesn’t change what the substance is.
9Solid StateParticles packed tightly together and constantly vibrating in place.Form a geometric arrangement, which give it specific chemical and physical properties.Solids have their own shape and a definite shape and volume
10Liquid StateParticles packed tightly together, but are able to move around more freely.Liquids can flow; their particles can slide past each other.Liquids have a definite volume, but take the shape of their container.
11Gas StateParticles have enough kinetic (moving) energy to separate and spread far apart or contract.Gases do not have a fixed volume or shape. They fill up the space they are in.
12VaporizationA particle has enough kinetic (moving) energy to escape from other particles.2 ways:Evaporation: happens on surface of a liquid at room temperatureBoiling: happens throughout liquid at a specific temperature.
13Boiling PointTo become a gas, the pressure of a vapor in the liquid must be higher than the pressure of the air on the surface.Heat of vaporization: energy required to change a liquid to a gas.
14DiffusionDiffusion: Spreading of particles throughout a given volume unit they are evenly distributed.Example: spraying perfume in a roomhill.com/sites/ /student_view0/chapter2 /animation__how_diffusion_works.html
15Adding energy changes the state of matter! **Sketch picture!
17Plasma Most common state of matter in the universe. Plasma: matter made of + and – charged particles, but is neutral overall.The collisions are very intense and cause electrons to be taken away.Examples: the sun, lightening bolts, neon and fluorescent tubes.
19Behavior of GasesBalloons stay inflated because of the atoms colliding with the walls of the container.If you add air to the balloon, there are more air particles. Therefore, more collisions are occurring and the container expands.
22Boyle’s Law P1V1 = P2V2 Example: P1V1 = P2V2 100 * 10 = 50 * V2 A balloon has a volume of L at a pressure of 100 kPa. What will the new volume be when the pressure drops to 50 kPa?P1 =V1 =P2 =V2 =P1V1 = P2V2100 * 10 = 50 * V21000 = 50 * V21000 = 50* V2100 kPa10.0 L20 L = V250 kPa20 L
23Pressure-Temperature Law What happens when you heat a container that can’t change shape?↑ temperature = ↑ pressurePressure builds until the container can’t hold it any more and it explodes.
25Charles’s Law↑ temperature = ↑ volume (constant pressure)
26Charles’s Law V1/T1 = V2/T2 (temp must be in kelvin) Example: A balloon has a volume of 2.0 L at a temperature of 25ºC. What will the new volume be when the temperature drops to 10ºC?V1 =T1 =V2 =T2 =V1/T1 = V2/T22.0 = V298 * V2 = 2.0 * 2832.0 LV2 = 2.0 * 28329825ºC = 298 K1.9 LV2 = 1.9 L10ºC = 283 K