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Solids, Liquids and Gases  Explains how particles in matter behave.  Three assumptions:  1. All matter is composed of small particles (atoms, molecules,

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Presentation on theme: "Solids, Liquids and Gases  Explains how particles in matter behave.  Three assumptions:  1. All matter is composed of small particles (atoms, molecules,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Solids, Liquids and Gases

3  Explains how particles in matter behave.  Three assumptions:  1. All matter is composed of small particles (atoms, molecules, and ions).  2. These particles are in constant, random motion.  3. These particles are colliding with each other and the walls of their container.

4  Imagine a room filled with tiny bouncing ping pong balls. That is what atoms are like!  A very small amount of energy is lost with each collision.

5  Thermal energy = Kinetic energy + Potential energy Moving Energy Forces holding particles together

6  Temperature : the measure of average kinetic energy  Quick definition: How fast are the particles moving?  Absolute Zero : no more thermal energy can be removed; particles barely moving at all.  -273.15 °C or 0 K (kelvin)

7 Solid Melting Liquid Condensation Gas Sublimation Freezing Boiling

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9  Chemical Properties: How a substance reacts. Examples: Flammability, reactions to light  Changes into a new substance during the reaction.  Physical Properties: Characteristics you can observe. Examples: Color, boiling point, magnetic  Doesn’t change what the substance is.

10  Particles packed tightly together and constantly vibrating in place.  Form a geometric arrangement, which give it specific chemical and physical properties.  Solids have their own shape and a definite shape and volume

11  Particles packed tightly together, but are able to move around more freely.  Liquids can flow; their particles can slide past each other.  Liquids have a definite volume, but take the shape of their container.

12  Particles have enough kinetic (moving) energy to separate and spread far apart or contract.  Gases do not have a fixed volume or shape. They fill up the space they are in.

13  A particle has enough kinetic (moving) energy to escape from other particles.  2 ways:  Evaporation: happens on surface of a liquid at room temperature  Boiling : happens throughout liquid at a specific temperature.

14  To become a gas, the pressure of a vapor in the liquid must be higher than the pressure of the air on the surface.  Heat of vaporization : energy required to change a liquid to a gas.

15  Diffusion: Spreading of particles throughout a given volume unit they are evenly distributed.  Example: spraying perfume in a room  http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2 /animation__how_diffusion_works.html http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2 /animation__how_diffusion_works.html

16 **Sketch picture!

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18  Most common state of matter in the universe.  Plasma: matter made of + and – charged particles, but is neutral overall.  The collisions are very intense and cause electrons to be taken away.  Examples: the sun, lightening bolts, neon and fluorescent tubes.

19  Pressure = Force/Area (P = F/A)  Unit: Pascals (Pa) = 1 N/m 2  At sea level, atomospheric pressure = 101.3 kilopascals (kPa) **Sketch picture & chart !

20  Balloons stay inflated because of the atoms colliding with the walls of the container.  If you add air to the balloon, there are more air particles. Therefore, more collisions are occurring and the container expands.

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22  ↓ volume = ↑pressure (constant temperature)

23  P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2  Example:  A balloon has a volume of 10.0 L at a pressure of 100 kPa. What will the new volume be when the pressure drops to 50 kPa?  P 1 =  V 1 =  P 2 =  V 2 = 100 kPa 10.0 L 50 kPa 20 L P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 100 * 10 = 50 * V 2 1000 = 50 * V 2 50 50 20 L = V 2

24  What happens when you heat a container that can’t change shape?  ↑ temperature = ↑ pressure  Pressure builds until the container can’t hold it any more and it explodes.

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26  ↑ temperature = ↑ volume (constant pressure)

27  V 1 /T 1 = V 2 /T 2 (temp must be in kelvin)  Example:  A balloon has a volume of 2.0 L at a temperature of 25ºC. What will the new volume be when the temperature drops to 10ºC?  V 1 =  T 1 =  V 2 =  T 2 = 2.0 L 25ºC + 273 = 298 K 1.9 L 10ºC + 273 = 283 K V 1 /T 1 = V 2 /T 2 2.0 = V 2 298 283 298 * V 2 = 2.0 * 283 V 2 = 2.0 * 283 298 V 2 = 1.9 L


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