The American Civil War Chapters 16 & 17 1861-1865
What do you think? What social, political, and economic trouble might be likely to occur in a civil war? What might happen when a civil war breaks out? How might a civil war be worse than other wars? How was the South’s situation in the Civil War similar to the Patriot’s situation in the Revolutionary War?
Major Players: The North Ulysses S. Grant Supreme Military Commander of the Union Army United States General during the Civil War Accepted the surrender of Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Courthouse in April 1865.
Major Players: The North Abraham Lincoln From Illinois and was a member of the Republican Party President of the United States during the Civil War Famous speeches included his First and Second Inaugural Addresses and the Gettysburg Address. Issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 freeing all slaves in areas then in rebellion. Through his leadership the Union was preserved and slavery was abolished after his assassination in 1865.
Major Players: The South Jefferson Davis From Mississippi Served in the US Senate prior to the Civil War Supported Secession Became President of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War.
Major Players: The South Robert E. Lee Fought in the Mexican War Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia Supreme Military Commander of the Confederacy Defeated Union troops at the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in April 1865.
Complete the following analogy ___________________ was to the Confederacy as ____________________ was to the Union. Frame of reference: President
Advantages & Resources: The North A very strong navy and almost all the shipyards were in the North. More factories (about 85% of all factories) Larger population (22 million to the South’s 9 million)
Advantages & Resources: The North Booming Economy Railroads!!!! Better organized and much more mileage of track. LEADERSHIP OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN!!! He was able to convince Northerners that democracy depended on preserving the Union.
Advantages & Resources: The South Knew the land (home-field advantage) Were trying to preserve their way of life (had the HEART… this war meant everything to them) Much better military commanders Many were trained at military colleges like West Point Had fought Mexico in the Mexican- American War so they were experienced.
Advantages & Resources: The South Was able to fight a defensive war, requiring the Union to stretch their resources to the limit in order to reach the Rebels. They weren’t trying to concur the North, they just wanted to be independent.
What do you think? Which side had better advantages? Why? Based on this evaluation… which side would you predict would win the war if you didn’t know the outcome already?????
Major Battles Firing on Fort Sumter First shots of the Civil War. Battle of Bull Run First actual battle of the Civil War. The South won much to everyone’s surprise! Antietam Single bloodiest day during the Civil War
Major Battles, Cont Shiloh U.S. gained northern part of the Mississippi River, A.S. Johnston was killed. Battle of Vicksburg General Grant captured the city of Vicksburg completing the capture and control of the Mississippi River and cutting the Confederate States in half.
Major Battles Cont. Battle of Gettysburg Turning point of the Civil War in the east. Robert E. Lee’s invasion of the north was turned back by the Army of the Potomac in July 1863. Appomattox Court House Surrender of Lee to Grant, ended the Civil War.
What do you think? Why do you think President Lincoln chose to re-supply Fort Sumter and risk all-out war rather than letting the Rebels have control over it. (pg. 465-466)
Complete the following analogy ________________ was to the Revolutionary War as _________________ was to the Civil War. Frame of reference: First shots fired
Complete the following analogy ________________ was to the Revolutionary War as _________________ was to the Civil War. Frame of reference: Turning point of the war
New inventions used during the war Telegraph While the telegraph had been around for a little while this was the first time it had been used by the military. Hot Air Balloons These were used to spy on troop movements and locations during the war. Ironclads Warships covered with iron Were a big improvement over wooden ships of the past New rifle technology allowed people to shoot further with more accuracy Railroads!!!! They weren’t new but they played a big role in the war.
What do you think? How might the use of the telegraph affect the outcome of a war? Why do you think the military chose to use hot air balloons? Was this choice beneficial? Why? How did changes in weapons and technology affect the way war was fought?
Strategies of the North The Anaconda Plan: Designed to smother the South’s economy Blockade of the South’s coastline (use of the Navy) so no goods or people could get in or out. Take control of the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy in two This plan’s drawback was that it would take time It worked!
Strategies of the North Emancipation Proclamation Issued by President Lincoln on September 22, 1862 Emancipation Proclamation declared that all slaves in states currently in rebellion after January 1, 1863 were free It DID NOT free slaves in the Border States (only ones in Confederate Territory)
What do you think? Why would Lincoln choose to abolish slavery only in the areas of rebellion and not where it existed in the Union? Was the Emancipation Proclamation effective? Why or why not? (pg. 488) Why was control of the rivers important for victory?
Strategies of the North Cont. Sherman’s March to the Sea (total war) General William Sherman and his men marched from Tennessee, living off of the land, to the Atlantic Coast of Georgia. The soldiers destroyed EVERYTHING in their path (enemy soldiers, entire towns, crops, livestock, railroads….everything!)
What do you think? Why would Sherman choose to use this type of strategy? Do you think it was fair or unfair? Do we have the right to do whatever we want to win a war? Evaluate how effective you think this sort of strategy would be in winning a war.
Strategies of the South Defensive position only They hoped that the North would soon get tired of fighting and agree to leave them alone. King Cotton Planned on using their cotton production as leverage in the war. The world needed cotton made in the South so they thought by withholding cotton to the rest of the world they might get other nations to help them This failed because other nations had A LOT of cotton from the year before so they didn’t need more.
Strategies of the South Cont. Once the South’s other plans didn’t work they tried to go on the offensive and hurt the North by wrecking their morale (then maybe they would get tired of fighting)
Lincoln’s Ideas of Union, Liberty, Equality, and Government First Inaugural Address – Argued passionately for the preservation of union. Promised he had no intention of abolishing slavery. Second Inaugural Address – Fight for restoration of peace and the Union. “Malice towards none, with charity towards all.” Gettysburg Address – The country should have a new birth of freedom. The government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall be preserved.
Lincoln’s Assassination Lincoln was assassinated on April 15, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth, a confederate sympathizer who blamed Lincoln for the South’s looming defeat in the Civil War, during a play at Ford’s Theatre in Washington D.C.
Put the following in order Passage of the 13 th Amendment Emancipation Proclamation Election of Lincoln Missouri Compromise Dred Scott Decision