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The EU Energy and Climate Policy and Its Macroeconomic Impacts on the EU Economy Symposium on Options for Energy Environmental Policy in Japan July 6,

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Presentation on theme: "The EU Energy and Climate Policy and Its Macroeconomic Impacts on the EU Economy Symposium on Options for Energy Environmental Policy in Japan July 6,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The EU Energy and Climate Policy and Its Macroeconomic Impacts on the EU Economy Symposium on Options for Energy Environmental Policy in Japan July 6, 2013 Unnada Chewpreecha, Cambridge Econometrics 06/07/2011

2 Disclaimer This presentation does not necessarily represent the views of the European Commission (EC) or any collaborating institution

3 Overview The EU Energy and Climate policy Assessing macroeconomic impacts using E3ME and E3MG Headline results

4 Overview The EU Energy and Climate policy Assessing macroeconomic impacts using E3ME and E3MG Headline results

5 The EU Energy and Climate Policy Headline energy and climate change targets for % cut in GHG emissions (from 1990 levels) 20% share of renewable energy 20% improvement in energy efficiency (from 2005)

6 The EU Climate and Energy Package A set of binding legislation which aims to ensure the targets are met Separate Energy Efficiency Plan and the Energy Efficiency Directive EU ETS Effort sharing at national level RES targets at national level CCS framework

7 Complexity and Interaction with Other EU Targets and Policies The targets are overlapped –e.g. RES target could undermined the EU-ETS But one target alone will not necessary lead to other targets being met –market failure e.g. pricing mechanism alone may not lead to RES and or energy-efficiency targets being met Complexity in designing national targets to achieve one single EU target Other factors undermining EU-ETS –recent economic crisis –EU ETS allowance prices collapse, structural reform of ETS –no incentive for industries to invest in low carbon technologies

8 Complexity and Interaction with Other EU Targets and Policies Link to other EU 2020 Targets such as employment and R&D and other EU policies such as resource efficiencies –need careful policy considerations to avoid contradictions –examples: increase in biocrops leads to higher food price material tax increase costs of investment goods EU ETS and competitiveness –negative impacts can be avoided/mitigated through measures such as Environmental Tax Reform (ETR)

9 Examples of Energy and Climate Policies in the EU Freezers/ refrigerators (+labeling) Regulation 2009/643/EC Recast of the EPBD 2010/31/EU9 TVs (+labeling) Regulation 2009/642/EC Circulators Regulation 2009/641/EC Labelling regulation for tyres 2009/1222/E C Electric motors Regulation 2009/640/EC GHG Effort Sharing Decision 2009/406/EC* Regulation Euro VI for heavy duty vehicles 2009/595/EC RES directive 2009/28/EC (Power Generation) RES directive 2009/28/EC (Transport)) GHG Effort Sharing Decision 2009/406/EC* EU-ETS MBI Regulations key

10 EU Policies Beyond framework and 2050 roadmap Continue the momentum of 2020 targets and taking account of long-term climate goal (2°C degree) Build on the experience of, and lessons learnt from, the 2020 framework and identify where improvements can be made.

11 EU Policies Beyond 2020 source(s): 2050 Roadmap, DG Climate Action, European Commission

12 Overview The EU Energy and Climate policy Assessing macroeconomic impacts using E3ME and E3MG Headline results

13 Assessing Macroeconomic Impacts using E3ME and E3MG E3ME (Europe) and E3MG (world) models are: –computer-based econometric models… –covering economy, energy and emissions… –with detailed sectors (linked by IO tables) and regions (Japan)… –and endogenous technological progress They can be used for forecasting but are typically used for policy analysis They are versatile tools that can be used for economic and economy/environment analysis They have often been used to support the official European Commission policy impact assessments

14 Modelling Structure – E3 Model ECONOMY as in national accounts TECHNOLOGY specifications & costs ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS as in environmental statistics ENERGY as in energy statistics e.g. industrial emissions of SF6 funding R&D prices and activity investment fuel use fuel prices and costs fuel use pollution- abatement equipment fuel use

15 How Energy and Environment Taxes are Modelled in E3ME/E3MG Increase in energy prices Reduction in energy consumption Reduction in emissions Industry Households Loss of real income Lower spending Loss of output Loss of competitiveness Worsening trade balance Loss of jobs

16 Studies Using E3ME/E3MG TopicsE3ME/E3MG was used to.. EU ETSassess the economic impacts of different mechanisms for allocating ETS allowances The Energy Taxation Directive model the Europe-wide economic and environmental impacts of different energy taxation regimes Environmental Tax Reformprovide European economic and environmental impacts of different ETR regimes, Energy Efficiencyprovide input to the proposed Energy Efficiency Directive by providing a quantitative assessment of the measures proposed to reduce energy demand. Moving Beyond 20%provide input for DG CLIMA’s communication on changing the 2020 GHG target to 30% by assessing the economic impacts of a 30% target Green Jobsmodel labour market implications of the EU climate and energy policies Copenhagen targetsanalyse global economic impacts of the agreed Copenhagen targets

17 Studies Using E3ME/E3MG (cont) TopicsE3ME/E3MG was used to.. Non-CO2 trading schemeassessing the impacts of introducing an EU SO2/NOx trading scheme Resource efficiencymodel EU resource efficiency policies through the E3ME material sub- model which covers physical resources such as food, feed, wood, metals, minerals, Carbon leakageexamine the extend of carbon leakage for EU industries as a result of EU climate policies REDDprovide an assessment of the two-way linkages between REDD and global carbon markets. E3MG was expanded to incorporate marginal abatement cost curves specific to the forestry sector Global 2c scenarioinvestigate global economic implications of reaching the 2c target in 2050 Environmental harmful subsidies investigate the implications of removing environmental harmful subsidies in the EU other non-environmental applications carry out analysis on trade, labour market, sector study, R&D and investment multipliers, commodity prices and government policies

18 Overview The EU Energy and Climate policy Assessing macroeconomic impacts using E3ME and E3MG Headline results

19 Headline Results Results taken from CE work done for DG Employment “Studies on Sustainability Issues – Green Jobs; Trade and Labour”, 2011 E3ME was used to estimate macroeconomic and labour market impacts of the EU energy and climate policies

20 Scenarios Summary Reference case where 20% renewables and GHG targets are met through mixture of MBIs and regulations Two scenarios where target is met differently Two scenarios with additional targets (30% GHG and 20% energy efficiency target) Revenues from MBIs recycled via income tax

21 Headline Results: Impacts on GDP Ref + Energy efficiency target is also met Ref: 20% Renewable + GHG targets met (mix MBIs & regulations) Ref: through MBIs Ref: through regulations Ref+ 30% GHG targets met (mix MBIs & regulations)

22 Headline Results: Impacts on Employment

23 Results Summary Positive GDP and employment results are driven by investment in renewables MBIs generate revenues to be recycled while regulations increase costs but no revenues Large amount of investment requires to meet energy efficiency target (IEA 2010 estimates for every 1% reduction in energy consumption, the EU buildings sector must invest €31.4bn a year)

24 Revenue Recycling and Investment Increase in energy prices Reduction in energy consumption Reduction in emissions Industry Households Loss of real income Lower spending Loss of output Loss of competitiveness Worsening trade balance Loss of jobs Revenue recycling: lower income tax Investment

25 Sensitivity: Revenue Recycling

26 Important Notes E3ME/E3MG modelling results form part of wider impact assessments Complement other analysis such as –other model types (CGEs) –quantitative analysis (e.g. CBA, input-output) –qualitative study, literature reviews –sector specific studies –survey and consultations All above need to be taken into account when carry out an impact assessment

27 Overview- Summary The EU Energy and Climate policy – targets and beyond –issues and complexities Assessing macroeconomic impacts using E3ME and E3MG –overview of the models –model applications Headline results –macroeconomic impacts from EU energy and environmental policies –implications of various revenue recycling methods

28 Thank you for your attention! The DG CLIMA web pages contain further information, including the full EC communication –http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/brief/eu/index_en.htmhttp://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/brief/eu/index_en.htm For full E3ME and E3MG projects and published papers as well as the model manual –www.e3me.comwww.e3me.com –www.e3mgmodel.comwww.e3mgmodel.com For further information on the modelling: –Unnada Chewpreecha, –Hector Pollitt,


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