2DefinitionHousing is not only a shelter to weather, but also includes access to such basic services as electricity, water and transport. Therefore, problem occurs when the quantity and quality of provision of housing do not reach satisfactory levels.
3Functions performed by a house as residence a shelter that protects the residents from environmental hazardsa place where residents can enjoy privacya place where essential physical, psychological and social needs are satisfied.
4Criteria to assess the standard of a house building materials used and the construction method, which determine the house’s ability to protect its residentsliving density, as measured by number of people per room. This determines the degree of privacy enjoyed by individualsavailability and quality of facilities in the houses. These are essential for meeting various needs of the residents
5LDC CityMDC CityRURAL-URBAN MIGRATIONCBDOVERSEAS MIGRANTSInner cityOutward migration ofhigher-income group
7Inadequate quantity of housing common in LDC citiesdemand for housing exceeds supply, leading to housing shortage / housing attainability --> overcrowding
8Poor quality of housing common in both LDC and MDC citiesurban slums = legal, low-rent housing in inner city areassquatters = illegal (usually not rent-paying) housing in inner city areas / at city margins / on hillslopes
9Urban decay common in both LDC and MDC cities substandard and derelict buildingspoor sanitation / inadequate facilitiescongested / overcrowding living condition / high building densitynarrow streets / traffic congestionlack of recreational space / parks / social facilitieslack of planning / mixed land useenvironmental pollution / environmentally degradedpoor aesthetic valuefire hazardssocial problems like family conflicts / mental distresses / theft / vandalismurban ghetto / racial segregation
101.1.1 Causes and Impacts of Housing Problem in LDCs Inadequate quantityLarge natural increaseRapid rural-urban migration from rural push factorsOver-population and pseudo-urbanization
111.1.1 Causes and Impacts of Housing Problem in MDCs Housing demand > supplyKeen competition of land usesSecond World WarOvercrowding
12rural-urban migration and overseas in-migration started in the early 20th centuryThe nowadays' most affected destinies are the USA, UK, South EuropeThe immigrants usually come from Africa, China, Eastern Europe, South America and Middle East.United States - Inflow of foreign-born population from Asia (total) as a percentage of total inflow: 1984 – 37.9%; 2004 – 35.7%
13limited space but keen competition among different land users economic development pushes the urban land value upforcing many low-income residents and high proportion of minority groups to live in slums in inner city areas
14Second World Warmany houses were seriously damaged and destroyed during WWII.The housing stock was badly depleted.
15Overcrowdingovercrowding and tenants sub-letting their units mainly occur in older housing near the CBD --> forming slums in inner city areas
16Substandard housingSocially, both slums and squatter housing are a reflection of unequal access to urban resources because squatter residents belong to the low-income, poor, socio-economically and politically marginal group in society.
17Slums they are found in transition zones next to the CBD, where houses are deteriorating, without adequate amenitiesthe tenants are too poor to improve the living conditions
18Slumsin MDC cities, landlords have moved out to the suburbs (suburbanization of the high-income groups) due to improved transport linkssome areas are ghettos of minor racial immigrant groupssome industries have relocated to the suburbs (suburbanization of industrial activities)local government has little income from tax to improve the living environment
19Squatters they are illegal, temporary housing found on roof tops hillslopes fringing the urban areasand on stilts or boats in the sheltered coastal areas near the city
20Squattersthey are usually the result of a large influx of new-comers / rural migrants to the city and also be the population growth of the poor
21Squatterssquatters settlements are known as “shanty towns” which are characterized by:scrap materials, e.g. wood and metal sheetinginsufficient basic services, e.g. sanitation, water, electricityovercrowded settlements
22Poor living environment Environmental pollutiondue to the mixed land use (workshops and retail units + residential units)land-use conflictspoor air quality + noise and land pollutionFire and health hazardsthese squatter huts are built of wood and cardboardthere are no surface roads / electricity supply / water and sewage facilitiescreating fire and health risksSocial problemsfamily conflictsmental distressestheft, robberies, crimes, vandalismethnic and social segregation
23Solutions to housing problems New town developmentUrban renewalSlums / squatters clearanceProvision of more housing
24New Town developmentnew town = a planned community aiming at solving certain problems, e.g. population redistribution
33Factors of new town development to relieve congested urban areasto decentralize industriesfor land use separationfor administration purpose
34New town developmentThe development of new towns / satellite towns general involves the outward movement of urban residents to the peripheral areas.
35New town developmentHowever, not all the residents are willing to move though they are suffering from rather poor living environment becausethey cannot afford the higher rent in the new townthey have to spend more time on journey-to-workthey have to pay higher transport cost in journey-to-work
36New town developmentTherefore, new town development / satellite towns must be associated with the process of industrial decentralization. In this way, people moving outward may find their new jobs in the surrounding areas easily.
37Successful in HK? New towns green towns Can multiple-nuclei really help?Heavy commuting traffic nowadaysTin Shui Wai = City of sorrow?
39Urban renewal Redevelopment = the demolition of bad housing Rehabilitation = involves improvement of existing old buildings and environment rather than demolition of buildings
40What is rehabilitation? Rehabilitation includes the renovation and management of buildings, such asimproving external appearance of buildings by cleaning and repairingfitting new windows and new doorsinstalling indoor toilets and bathsredesigning recreational areas
41Rehabilitation causes less disruption to residents less social disruption and resentmentinvolves less financial cost, especially compensationhelps preserve and restore buildings of cultural, historical and architectural valuethe living environment is greatly upgraded
42slum / squatter clearance replaced by public housingto solve the problems of landslides / fire hazards / poor living conditions
43building more adequate houses through public organizations, e.g. Housing Authority / Housing Society in Hong Kongor private sectors / developers
44Ultimate solutionSustainable city development = "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." ["Our Common Future", 1987]finding ways to increase prosperity and improve the quality of life while reducing overall pollution and waste;meeting our own needs and aspirations without doing damage to the prospects of future generations;and reducing the environmental burden we put on our neighbours and helping to preserve common resources. ("1999 Policy Address")
45Recent issues Land use conflicts Siting of dangerous / undesirable industriesLocational advantages / disadvantagesUrban planning building density / heightReserve 20% space below the ridgelineCityscape / streetscapePreservation vs economic development
48Why building government headquarters at Tamar site? Long-term solution to the acute shortage of office space faced by the Government Secretariat and LegCoThe new Central Government Complex will provide centralised accommodation for the offices with core policy formulation functions and thereby enhance the operational efficiency of the Government Secretariat.The new Legislative Council Complex will provide sufficient office space and improved facilities for Members and staff, and also room for future expansion where necessary.Enhancing vibrancy of waterfront and opening up the site for the public's enjoymentThe Tamar project will enhance the appeal and vibrancy of the harbourfront area and convey Hong Kong's position as Asia's world city.The open space will be integrated with the adjoining waterfront promenade to provide about 10.8 hectares of recreational area along the Central waterfront for the public's enjoyment.Job creationAbout 2,700 jobs will be created.