Presentation on theme: "1830-1848 CH. 13 - AGE OF EXPANSION. Sec. I MOVEMENT TO THE FAR WEST A. TEXAS REVOLT 1. 1821 – Mexico independent from Spain, econ & polit probs 2. Moses."— Presentation transcript:
1830-1848 CH. 13 - AGE OF EXPANSION
Sec. I MOVEMENT TO THE FAR WEST A. TEXAS REVOLT 1. 1821 – Mexico independent from Spain, econ & polit probs 2. Moses Austin lead Americans into N. MX 3. Mx offer- cheap land & 4 yrs tax exemption if: a. Mexican citizens b. Convert to Catholicism c. Follow MX law – no slavery 4. 300 families, Stephen Austin to TX 5. Problems – Americans! Did not follow laws, & smuggled in American goods w/o paying tariffs
TEXAS 5. 1832 Texans unhappy – wanted rep in MX leg 7000 Texans (2x # of MX in TX) 6. Santa Anna became dictator of MX & limited power of the states, inc. TX 7. Austin writes letter demanding more authority in TX, arrested; rumors that Americans will be expelled leads to sporadic fighting. 8. June 1835 Travis and settlers captured Fort Anahuac, fighting breaks out in Gonzales & San Antonio
B. REPUBLIC OF TEXAS 1. March 1836 – convention -Texas independent 2. March 6 – Battle at the Alamo – 200 Texans fought 3000 Mexican troops; survivors executed, inc. D. Crocket, Bowie J. Bowie & W. 3. Late March, Mexicans killed 350 Texans at Goliad 4. April – Gen. Sam Houston led TX troops to San Jacinto & Captured Gen. Santa Anna- signed treaties giving up land north to Rio Grande. Call: “Remember the Alamo!!”
TEXAS 5. Sam Houston elected 1 st pres of Republic of Texas, vp MX 6. Sent delegation to DC, requested annexation 7. Pres. Jackson refused – feared war w/MX, imbalance of slave states to free states. 8. Texas became the Lone Star Republic; offered free land 9. Population 140,000 by 1845
C. TRAILS OF TRADE & SETTLEMENT 1. 1821 – Santa Fe Trail – W. Becknell – household goods to MX for leather & silver goods, furs & mules 2. 1830s mountain men headed into Rockies - beaver skin 3. 1840 – Oregon Trail – missionaries Marcus & Narcissa Whitman moved to Oregon Country to convert natives 4. 1840 California Trail – Independence, MO jumping off place, traded for oxen, supplies for 6 month journey, headed west through Great Plains, deserts and mts to Sutter’s Fort – needed to travel after rains and before snow; most walked 2000 miles to the West
THOMAS HART BENTON, artist OPENING OF THE WEST
D. MORMONS 1. 1821 founder Joseph Smith had vision, God wanted him to restore pure religion by creating a new Zion in the West 2. Moved multiple times – OH; IN, MO; Nauvoo, IL – revelations & practices caused persecution 3. Smith killed by mob in jail in 1844. 4. Brigham Young led Mormons west, Utah 5. Deseret – communal living 6. Congress sent troops to force UT to follow federal law after US gained UT after MX – Amer War 6. Statehood withheld until 1896
SEC. II MAINIFEST DESTINY & WAR W/MX A. TYLER & TEXAS 1. 1841 Tyler becomes president; pro-slavery Virginian, & supporter of annexation; Whig party did not 2. Tyler favors annexation as issue to get him elected pres in 1844; adm spreads rumor that Brit will financially aid TX in return for end of slavery in TX 3. Sen Calhoun writes a treaty & begins debate in the Senate, northern Whigs denounce treaty as pro-slavery plot & treaty does not pass (35 to 16).
B. POLK & ANNEXATION 1. 1844 -Tyler fails to win nomination of either party 2. Democ did not nominate Van Buren – opposed annex, same as when he was Pres in 1836 3. Election of 1844: Dem: Polk 170 WHIG: CLAY 105 LIBERTY: BIRNEY 0 4. BEFORE LEAVING OFFICE, TYLER ENCOURAGES CONG TO ANNEX TX
C. MANIFEST DESTINY 1. 1845 - O’Sullivan – ed. US Magazine & Democratic Review a. God on side of American expansion b. Democracy will follow expansion c. Population growth in US required expansion d. Access to Pacific & land 2. Southerners agreed w/ expansion; Northerners opposed a. Problem?
D. POLK AND OREGON COUNTRY 1. Orig claimed by US, BR, SP & Russia; in 1845 just US & BR 2. Pres Polk wanted boundary at 49 th parallel (excluding Vancouver Island); but publicly demanded boundary at 54 th Parallel, part of 1844 pres. campaign 3. Britain refused; requested int’l arbitration, Polk ignored- a show of power to the British 4. US public cried - “54’ 40’ or fight!” – US didn’t want to fight –problems with MX. 5. Brit diplomatically agreed to 49 th parallel, so Treaty of Oregon agreed to by Sen in June 1846, est. 49 th parallel
TREATY OF OREGON 1846
E. WAR WITH MEXICO 1. Tensions with MX increase after US annexed Texas a. Broke diplomatic relations w/ US b. Dispute over border w/ Texas – US – Rio Grande, but MX – Nueces River 2. Pres. Polk sent troops to border to guard land between rivers & Rep Slidell to negotiate purchase of CA & NM (US troops in CA instructed to seize Pacific ports if war broke out) 3. Mexico angry, refused Slidell’s offer & orders MX troops across Nueces.
WAR WITH MEXICO 1846 4. May 13, 1846 Congress voted for war (Sen 40-2; House 174-14) a. Col. Kearny captured Santa Fe, then CA b. Capt. Fremont lead Bear Flag Revolt in CA c. Gen. Taylor took Monterrey, advanced to MxCity d. Gen. Scott captured Tampico, Veracruz, then MxCity
DIPLOMACY WITH MEXICO 9. Diplomat Nicholas Trist sent to negotiate – Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, Feb. 1848 (Senate vote 38 – 14) a. Mex ceded CA and NM b. Agreed on Rio Grande as border c. US to pay $15 million to Mexico, & any American claims. 10. Wilmot Proviso – addition to prohibit slavery in Mexican Cession; passed House, not Senate 11. Gadsden Purchase 1853 – US paid $10 million for southern AZ & NM; wanted RR to San Diego
SEC. III INTERNAL EXPANSION A. GROWTH OF RAILROAD 1. 1830 – RR lines developed powered by steam (from Britain) 2. Expensive, so most freight still carried by canal. 3. 3. 1860 - 30,000 miles of track; ownership by corporations that could sell stock to raise capital to develop routes & federal loans
B. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1. 1840s new industrial method a. larger workforce b. Payment of wages c. Interchangeable parts d. Continuous manufacturing 2. Transported goods North to South, East to West a. Produced farm equipment – threshers, reapers, plows b. Machine parts – lathes, calipers
C. MASS IMMIGRATION 1. Population rising 1790- 4 million, 1830 – 13 million a. Birth rate b. Better health 2. After 1840 – immigration a major factor a. Reduced transportation costs b. Job opportunities 3. Most immigrants moved to NE cities a. Irish came due to potato famine – Boston, NY, Phil b. Germans came due to political issues - $$ for Midwest land
D. NEW WORKING CLASS 1. Cheap labor promoted industrialization a. 1820 Lowell Mills hired young single women b. 1860 61% of labor force were immigrants 2. Work conditions worsened as managers replaced owners a. 12-14 hr days, wages cut, production demands higher b. Workers resisted – unused to factory work 3. 1834 Factory Girls Assoc – union a. 1834 – strike against 25% wage cut b. 1836 – strike against increase dorm rent – both failed 4. 1842 – Female Labor Reform Assoc- Sarah Bagley a. 10 hour day & better conditions
External expansion leads to more controversy over slavery Internal expansion leads to growth of industrialization and the problems associated with it: child labor, inequality of income, labor discontent, environmental abuse…