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A People “on the Move” Visions of greatness and success, both national and personal, set America in motion in the 1840’s and 1850’s.

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Presentation on theme: "A People “on the Move” Visions of greatness and success, both national and personal, set America in motion in the 1840’s and 1850’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 A People “on the Move” Visions of greatness and success, both national and personal, set America in motion in the 1840’s and 1850’s.

2 I. The Vision “Young America” Aggressive foreign policy, territorial acquisition and rapid economic growth New technological advances celebrated Soaring ambition and aggressiveness John L. O’Sullivan’s “Manifest Destiny” (1845)

3 II. The West Beckons The Myth and the Promise of the American West Stabilizing the Canadian border --Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842) Joint occupation of and continuing disputes over Oregon Flamboyant and Prosperous life on the Mexican frontier

4 III. The Movement West Santa Fe Trail Oregon Trail --6 month trip miles long --300,000 travelers by 1860 The Mormons --Joseph Smith and Brigham Young

5 IV. Texas

6 A. The Revolution Independence of Mexico (1821) American Settlement in Mexico during the 1820’s and 1830’s Texan desire for self- government The revolution begins (1835)

7 B. Birth of a Republic Declaration of Independence (March, 1836) Santa Anna besieges the Alamo Sam Houston’s Victory at the Battle of San Jacinto

8 B. Birth of a Republic (cont.) Sam Houston elected the first president of the Republic of Texas Texan desire for immediate annexation by the U.S. Texas remains a republic for 10 years

9 V. The Politics of Expansion The death of William Henry Harrison John Tyler: President without a Party The Election of 1844 Agreement to avoid the Texas annexation issue Polk vs. Clay

10 VI.Aggressive Expansion: The Presidency of James K. Polk ( ) “54`40 or Fight”: The Argument over Oregon Polk’s Diplomatic Bluff Polk passes treaty on to Congress so that he is not incriminated in the compromise

11 VII. The Mexican War Polk’s provocation of Mexico Zachary Taylor’s Success in New Mexico John C. Fremont takes US troops into California Scott’s drive on Mexico City after first US amphibious landing of troops in history

12 VII. The Mexican War (cont.) Training ground for Civil War generals Nicholas Trist and Treaty Negotiations Land acquistions Cost and casualties Mexican War “Firsts” Why not annex all of Mexico?

13 VIII. Internal Expansion Samuel Morse’s Telegraph (1844) California Gold Rush (1849) Early railroad technology Increase in miles of RR tracks after 1840

14 VIII. Internal Expansion (cont.) The challenges of early railroad travel Railroad boom boosted industrial and economic growth Railroads increase US urbanization Influence of the railroad on early American culture -- “Stay on track”

15 IX. Industrial Expansion New machinery and techniques impact factory production Factory production spreads to new industries Impact of factories on the American work place Increasing mechanization of American agriculture These trends are mutually reinforcing

16 X. Immigrants on the Move

17 A. Immigration to Antebellum America Need for cheap, unskilled labor = “pull” factor Greatest influx of immigrants in US history = New York’s Castle Garden (1855) Irish Immigrants German Immigrants American response to this new immigration

18 B. A New Working Class Willingness of Irish men to take unskilled, lower paying factory work Antebellum Labor militancy Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) legalizes American Unions Most unions came and went with a single strike

19 B. A New Working Class (cont) Workingmen’s Political Parties -- “Loco Foco’s” Subtle Labor Protests Emergence of a Permanent Working Class


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