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Cs/ee 143 Communication Networks Steven Low CMS, EE, Caltech Fall 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Cs/ee 143 Communication Networks Steven Low CMS, EE, Caltech Fall 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 cs/ee 143 Communication Networks Steven Low CMS, EE, Caltech Fall 2012

2 Warning These notes are not self-contained, probably not understandable, unless you also were in the lecture They are supplement to not replacement for class attendance

3 Internet applications (2006) Telephony Music TV & home theatre Cloud computing Finding your way Mail Games Library at your finger tip Social networking

4 Networking: 143, 144, 145  cs/ee 143 Communication Networks How to send information from A to B  cs/ee 144 Ideas Behind the Web How web technologies work  cs/ee 145 Projects in Networking Advanced project – propose your own topic Understanding both theory and practice of networks

5 Networking: 143, 144, : transport layer and down 144: transport layer and up 145: project course 143/144/145 forms a project sequence for CS major Another RSRG sequence: cs141abc

6 143: Communication Networks

7 144: Ideas behind the web a.k.a. What makes google tick? Unique course that you can’t find at any other school The course will be a series of important topics from the web. For each, we will learn -The theory behind the topic -Hands-on design, system building

8 CS 141a - Distributed Computation LaboratoryCourse Introduction October Classes You are expected to attend class. Goal is learning with minimal lecturing. Ideally, classes consist of discussions, students solving problems together. You are expected to use the material outside class; the class is interactive. Turn off anything with an on/off switch. Interact! Talk! Source: Mani Chandy

9 Alumni Recommendation The Caltech experience should give engineers skills in: Communication Writing scientific papers, proposals, plans Speaking to science, government, business audiences Working in teams Project planning and management Division of labor; leadership Larger, global view of the world Source: Mani Chandy

10 RSRG courses and research RSRG courses 1. Learn by doing 1. Emphasis on creativity, problem-solving, research 2. Integrating courses, SURF, internships, theses, research opportunities in multiyear programs 3. Close interaction with faculty in and out of class 4. Interactive classes: “The lecture is dead.” Source: Mani Chandy

11 Course website

12 cs/ee 143 Communication Networks Chapter 1 The Internet Text: Walrand & Parakh, 2010 Steven Low CMS, EE, Caltech

13 Hosts, routers, links IP addresses, domain name Packet, header/trailer

14 Basic mechanisms Packet switching No dedicated resources Packets may follow different paths Packets may be lost, error, out-of-order Addressing Globally unique IP address Domain name Mapping from DN to IP may change dynamically (DNS)

15 Basic mechanisms Routing Destination based Routing decision may adapt to network condition, e.g., failure Error & loss recovery Retransmission of lost or erroneous pkt Typically done end-to-end Flow & congestion control End-to-end Implicit feedback class project focus

16 Router

17 CIDR notation Example (IPv4) /24 = { – } = subnet mask /22 = { – } = { – } subnet mask: prefix = first 24 bits #addresses = = 2 8 #addresses = = 2 10 CIDR = classless inter-domain routing

18 CIDR notation

19 CIDR notation / /1

20 CIDR notation / / / /3 Address blocks may be nested ! e.g /1 contains /3

21 Forwarding decision Destination IPOutput link / / Packet’s destination IP Output link ? entry 1: entry 2: destination:

22 Forwarding decision / / / / /22 output link 2output link 1

23 Forwarding decision / / /24 Packet dest: output link 2output link 1

24 Longest prefix matching Destination IPOutput link / / Packet’s destination IP Output link 1 It matches more with the first address block entry 1: entry 2: destination:

25 Longest prefix matching Destination IPOutput link / / Packet’s destination IP Output link 2 It matches more with the second address block entry 1: entry 2: destination:

26 Longest prefix matching Destination IPOutput link / / / Packet’s destination IP Output link entry 1: entry 2: entry 3: destination: Even though it matches both entries 2 and 3, entry 2 has a longer prefix entry 3 “contains” entry 2

27 Longest prefix matching / / / /22 Subnets in routing tables may not be disjoint! Route to most specific address block

28 How to construct routing table Destination IPOutput link / / How do we make routing decisions? (Dijkstra, Bellman-Ford, BGP,... Ch 5 Routing)

29 cs/ee 143 Communication Networks Chapter 2 Principles Text: Walrand & Parakh, 2010 Steven Low CMS, EE, Caltech

30 Principles  Sharing  Metrics  Scalability  Layering Application & technology independence  Application topology

31 Sharing Packet switching, statistical multiplexing  Queueing analysis cf circuit switching in traditional telephone network

32 Sharing Packet switchingCircuit switching InternetTraditional telephone nk No dedicated resourcesDedicated resources No circuit setup/tear downCircuit setup/tear down Queueing delayNo queueing delay Loose performance guarantee Stricter performance guarantee More efficient for bursty (data) traffic Better for fixed rate traffic

33 Metrics Link rate (bps) DSL e.g. 768kbps down, 256kbps up Link bandwidth (Hz) Size of frequency band FM radio, wireless spectra,... If link can transmit over [300Hz, 1MHz], its bandwidth is ~1MHz Link capacity (bps) Maximum link rate possible

34 Metrics  Link capacity example SNR = 2 20 W = 1MHz C = 10 6 log 2 ( ) bit/s = 20 Mbps link “rate” is often called link “bandwidth” in networking literature

35 Metrics Throughput (bps) Bit rate actually achieved Example  MP3 file of 3MB transferred in 2 mins  Throughput = 3MB / 2mins = 200 kbps Generally less than link rate because of transmission and protocol overheads throughput <= link rate <= link capacity information theory communication, coding theories networking, protocol design

36 Window Flow Control  ~ W packets per RTT  Lost packet detected by missing ACK RTT time Source Destination 12W12W12W data ACKs 12W

37 Metrics  Delay and delay jitter (s) Some applications care more about throughput, some about delay, some about delay jitter  M/M/1 queue  Little’s law

38 Little’s law

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44 Queueing system random arrival process with rate random service time with average  Little’s law  Verifies directly for M/M/1, but holds much more generally  Extremely useful because of its generality

45 Queueing system random arrival process with rate random service time with average

46 M/M/1 queue Poisson arrival process with rate Exponential service time with average

47 Scalability Location-based addressing Example: IP is location based Ethernet is not Advantages  Reduce routing table size  Simpler routing operation Disadvantages  Makes mobility hard  Makes security hard

48 Scalability Hierarchical Two level Autonomous system  Same administrative and/or economic domain  Shortest path routing: OSPF, IS-IS Inter-domain  BGP Both simplify routing

49 Scalability Best effort service Simple TCP/IP layer End-to-end principle Simple network, intelligent hosts Stateless routers  Packet carries its own state Both simplify router  fast big inexpensive routers Latest (~decade) idea: software defined networking (SDN)

50 Scalability Hierarchical naming Easier on human DNS translation Layering Application & technology independence Application topology Client/server CDN P2P Cloud computing Social networking


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