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Questions 1.What is Full form Of TCP/IP 2.Which are the layers in TCP/IP Model ? 3.Task of Application Layer 4.Task Of Host – to – Network Layer 5.Task.

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Presentation on theme: "Questions 1.What is Full form Of TCP/IP 2.Which are the layers in TCP/IP Model ? 3.Task of Application Layer 4.Task Of Host – to – Network Layer 5.Task."— Presentation transcript:

1 Questions 1.What is Full form Of TCP/IP 2.Which are the layers in TCP/IP Model ? 3.Task of Application Layer 4.Task Of Host – to – Network Layer 5.Task of Internet layer 6.Host to network is combination of which layers ? 7. task of transport layer 8.Protocol in Application layer 9.Protocol in transport layer 10.What is TCP ? 11.What is UDP ? 12.Which one is connection oriented & Connection Less? 13.Example of TCP, Example Of UDP 14.Protocol in internet layer? 15.Which are designing issues in Layers? 16.Difference Between TCP/IP & OSI 1

2 Network Examples 2

3 The ARPANET  Developed By ARPA in 1968.  Designed To service nuclear Attack.  Before ARPANET only Telephone Networks were there.  Before ARPANET the network works on circuit switching principle.  It was vulnerable because failure in one switch will fail whole Conversion.  ARPANET use concept of PACKET SWITCHING, contains subnets and Hosts.  Host will send Message to subnet and subnet will divide the message in packets and Forward it.  Each Packet was stored Before it was forwarded. 3

4 The ARPANET  (a) Structure of the telephone system.  (b) Baran’s proposed distributed switching system. 4

5 The ARPANET (2)  The original ARPANET design.  IMP : interface Message Processor 5

6 The Internet  Not A specific network but collection of networks.  Not planned and controlled by anyone.  Possible Because of TCP/IP Model. 6

7 Internet Services  Traditional applications (1970 – 1990) E-mail News Remote login File transfer 7

8 Internet 8

9 Internet address  To identify each computer on the net it requires a proper addressing scheme.  For identification each system will have  Name ( Domain Name)  Address ( IP Address) 9

10 IP Address  Each computer on the internet is identify by unique IP Address.  It is made of four number each of 256 bits.  Each will have value from 1 to 255  Example :  The numbers between. Are called OCTETS  Leftmost octet represent Largest Network.  Right most octet represent a particular machine. 10

11 Questions 1.What is ARPANET ? 2.Two main parts in ARPANET ? 3.Task of host ? 4.Task of subnet ? 5.Which are two types of switching ? 6.What is circuit switching ? 7.What is packet switching ? 8.Define 9.Internet Services ? 10.IP address is Of how many bits ? 11.Name for the numbers in IP address ? 12.Range of OCTET ? 13.Left Most Octet Represent ? 14.Right Most Octet Represent ? 11

12 Domain Name Addressing  A small Network Having many computers is called Domain.  It may also represent the behaviour of the Network or the location of the network. Domain NameDescription.comCompany or Commercial.eduEducational.govGovernment.milMilitary site.netInternet service provide or network resource Domain NameDescription.auAustralia.inIndia.ukUnited kingdom.cacanada 12

13 Wireless LAN  Uses wireless transmission media.  Less popular because of high price, low data rate.  The typical Coverage area is 300 to 1000 feet.  Must provide security.  The MAC(Medium Access Control) addressing should permit dynamic and automated addition,deletion,relocation of end system. 13

14 Application of wireless LAN  LAN EXTENSION :  WLAN saves the cost of installation of LAN cabling and eases the task of relocation and modification.  Cross Building interconnect :  To connect two LAN in different building, it may be wired or wireless.  Ad hoc Networking :  Is a peer to peer connection for temporarily purpose. 14

15 Wireless LANs  (a) Wireless networking with a base station.  (b) Ad hoc networking. 15

16 Types of WLAN  It Depends Upon Transmission technique Used.  Infrared(IR) LAN : Limited To Single Room  Spread Spectrum LAN : Spread Spectrum Transmission.  Narrow Band Microwave : Microwave Frequency. 16

17 Types of WLAN  IEEE 802.11X  802.11 refers to a family of specification developed by IEEE( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)  802.11 :  Provide 1 Mbps or 2 Mbps transmission in 2.4 GHz Band  802.11a :  Provide 5 Mbps transmission in 5 GHz Band  802.11b (wifi) :  Provide 11 Mbps transmission in 2.4 GHz Band  802.11g :  Provide 20 Mbps transmission in 2.4 GHz Band 17

18 Frame Relay Frame Relay (FR) is a high-performance WAN protocol that operates at the physical and data link layers of the OSI reference model. FR originally was designed for use across Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) interfaces. Today, it is used over a variety of other network interfaces as well. FR is an example of a packet-switched technology. 18

19 19 Frame Relay Devices  Devices attached to a Frame Relay WAN fall into the following two general categories:  Data terminal equipment (DTE)  DTEs generally are considered to be terminating equipment for a specific network and typically are located on the premises of a customer.  Example of DTE devices are terminals, personal computers, routers, and bridges.  Data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE)  DCEs are carrier-owned internetworking devices.  The purpose of DCE equipment is to provide clocking and switching services in a network, which are the devices that actually transmit data through the WAN.

20 20 Frame Relay Devices

21 21 Packet-Switching Networks  Basic technology the same as in the 1970s  One of the few effective technologies for long distance data communications  Advantages:  Flexibility, resource sharing, robust, responsive  Disadvantages:  Time delays in distributed networks  Need for routing and congestion control

22 22 Definition of Packet Switching  Refers to protocols in which messages are divided into packets before they are sent. Each packet is then transmitted individually and can even follow different routes to its destination. Once all the packets forming a message arrive at the destination, they are recompiled into the original message.  Most modern Wide Area Network (WAN) protocols, including TCP/IP, X.25, and Frame Relay, are based on packet-switching technologies.

23 23 Circuit Switching  In contrast, normal telephone service is based on a circuit- switching technology, in which a dedicated line is allocated for transmission between two parties.  Circuit-switching is ideal when data must be transmitted quickly and must arrive in the same order in which it's sent. This is the case with most real-time data, such as live audio and video. Packet switching is more efficient and robust for data that can withstand some delays in transmission, such as e-mail messages and Web pages.

24 NDSL, Chang Gung University 24 The Use of Packets

25 25 Packet Switching: Datagram Approach

26 26 Advantages with compared to Circuit-Switching  Greater line efficiency (many packets can go over shared link)  Non-blocking under heavy traffic (but increased delays). When traffic becomes heavy on a circuit- switching network, some calls are blocked.  Priorities can be used.

27 27 Disadvantages relative to Circuit-Switching  Packets Add additional delay with every node they pass through  Jitter: variation in packet delay  Data overhead in every packet for routing information, etc  Processing overhead for every packet at every node traversed

28 NDSL, Chang Gung University 28 Simple Switching Network

29 29 Switching Technique  Large messages broken up into smaller packets  Datagram  Each packet sent independently of the others  No call setup  More reliable (can route around failed nodes or congestion)  Virtual circuit  Fixed route established before any packets sent  No need for routing decision for each packet at each node

30 NDSL, Chang Gung University 30 Packet Switching: Virtual-Circuit Approach

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