Presentation on theme: "Questions What is Full form Of TCP/IP"— Presentation transcript:
1Questions What is Full form Of TCP/IP Which are the layers in TCP/IP Model ?Task of Application LayerTask Of Host – to – Network LayerTask of Internet layerHost to network is combination of which layers ?task of transport layerProtocol in Application layerProtocol in transport layerWhat is TCP ?What is UDP ?Which one is connection oriented & Connection Less?Example of TCP , Example Of UDPProtocol in internet layer?Which are designing issues in Layers?Difference Between TCP/IP & OSIBy :Jigar Pandya
3The ARPANET Developed By ARPA in 1968. Designed To service nuclear Attack.Before ARPANET only Telephone Networks were there.Before ARPANET the network works on circuit switching principle.It was vulnerable because failure in one switch will fail whole Conversion.ARPANET use concept of PACKET SWITCHING ,contains subnets and Hosts.Host will send Message to subnet and subnet will divide the message in packets and Forward it.Each Packet was stored Before it was forwarded.
4The ARPANET (a) Structure of the telephone system. (b) Baran’s proposed distributed switching system.
5The ARPANET (2) The original ARPANET design. IMP : interface Message ProcessorBy :Jigar Pandya
6The Internet Not A specific network but collection of networks. Not planned and controlled by anyone.Possible Because of TCP/IP Model.
7Internet ServicesTraditional applications (1970 – 1990)NewsRemote loginFile transfer
9Internet addressTo identify each computer on the net it requires a proper addressing scheme.For identification each system will haveName ( Domain Name)Address ( IP Address)
10IP AddressEach computer on the internet is identify by unique IP Address.It is made of four number each of 256 bits.Each will have value from 1 to 255Example :The numbers between . Are called OCTETSLeftmost octet represent Largest Network.Right most octet represent a particular machine.
11Questions What is ARPANET ? Two main parts in ARPANET ? Task of host ? Task of subnet ?Which are two types of switching ?What is circuit switching ?What is packet switching ?DefineInternet Services ?IP address is Of how many bits ?Name for the numbers in IP address ?Range of OCTET ?Left Most Octet Represent ?Right Most Octet Represent ?
12Domain Name Addressing A small Network Having many computers is called Domain.It may also represent the behaviour of the Network or the location of the network.Domain NameDescription.comCompany or Commercial.eduEducational.govGovernment.milMilitary site.netInternet service provide or network resourceDomain NameDescription.auAustralia.inIndia.ukUnited kingdom.cacanada
13Wireless LAN Uses wireless transmission media. Less popular because of high price , low data rate.The typical Coverage area is 300 to 1000 feet.Must provide security.The MAC(Medium Access Control) addressing should permit dynamic and automated addition,deletion,relocation of end system.
14Application of wireless LAN LAN EXTENSION :WLAN saves the cost of installation of LAN cabling and eases the task of relocation and modification.Cross Building interconnect :To connect two LAN in different building , it may be wired or wireless.Ad hoc Networking :Is a peer to peer connection for temporarily purpose.
15Wireless LANs (a) Wireless networking with a base station. (b) Ad hoc networking.
16Types of WLAN It Depends Upon Transmission technique Used. Infrared(IR) LAN : Limited To Single RoomSpread Spectrum LAN : Spread Spectrum Transmission.Narrow Band Microwave : Microwave Frequency .By :Jigar Pandya
17Types of WLAN IEEE 802.11X 802.11 : 802.11a : 802.11b (wifi) : refers to a family of specification developed by IEEE(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers):Provide 1 Mbps or 2 Mbps transmission in 2.4 GHz Band802.11a :Provide 5 Mbps transmission in 5 GHz Band802.11b (wifi) :Provide 11 Mbps transmission in 2.4 GHz Band802.11g :Provide 20 Mbps transmission in 2.4 GHz Band
18Frame RelayFrame Relay (FR) is a high-performance WAN protocol that operates at the physical and data link layers of the OSI reference model.FR originally was designed for use across Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) interfaces.Today, it is used over a variety of other network interfaces as well.FR is an example of a packet-switched technology.
19Frame Relay DevicesDevices attached to a Frame Relay WAN fall into the following two general categories:Data terminal equipment (DTE)DTEs generally are considered to be terminating equipment for a specific network and typically are located on the premises of a customer.Example of DTE devices are terminals, personal computers, routers, and bridges.Data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE)DCEs are carrier-owned internetworking devices.The purpose of DCE equipment is to provide clocking and switching services in a network, which are the devices that actually transmit data through the WAN.
21Packet-Switching Networks Basic technology the same as in the 1970sOne of the few effective technologies for long distance data communicationsAdvantages:Flexibility, resource sharing, robust, responsiveDisadvantages:Time delays in distributed networksNeed for routing and congestion control
22Definition of Packet Switching Refers to protocols in which messages are divided into packets before they are sent. Each packet is then transmitted individually and can even follow different routes to its destination. Once all the packets forming a message arrive at the destination, they are recompiled into the original message.Most modern Wide Area Network (WAN) protocols, including TCP/IP, X.25, and Frame Relay, are based on packet-switching technologies.
23Circuit SwitchingIn contrast, normal telephone service is based on a circuit- switching technology, in which a dedicated line is allocated for transmission between two parties.Circuit-switching is ideal when data must be transmitted quickly and must arrive in the same order in which it's sent. This is the case with most real-time data, such as live audio and video. Packet switching is more efficient and robust for data that can withstand some delays in transmission, such as messages and Web pages.
26Advantages with compared to Circuit-Switching Greater line efficiency (many packets can go over shared link)Non-blocking under heavy traffic (but increased delays). When traffic becomes heavy on a circuit- switching network, some calls are blocked.Priorities can be used.
27Disadvantages relative to Circuit-Switching Packets Add additional delay with every node they pass throughJitter: variation in packet delayData overhead in every packet for routing information, etcProcessing overhead for every packet at every node traversed
28Simple Switching Network NDSL, Chang Gung University
29Switching Technique Large messages broken up into smaller packets DatagramEach packet sent independently of the othersNo call setupMore reliable (can route around failed nodes or congestion)Virtual circuitFixed route established before any packets sentNo need for routing decision for each packet at each node
30Packet Switching: Virtual-Circuit Approach NDSL, Chang Gung University