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Questions What is Full form Of TCP/IP

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1 Questions What is Full form Of TCP/IP
Which are the layers in TCP/IP Model ? Task of Application Layer Task Of Host – to – Network Layer Task of Internet layer Host to network is combination of which layers ? task of transport layer Protocol in Application layer Protocol in transport layer What is TCP ? What is UDP ? Which one is connection oriented & Connection Less? Example of TCP , Example Of UDP Protocol in internet layer? Which are designing issues in Layers? Difference Between TCP/IP & OSI By :Jigar Pandya

2 Network Examples

3 The ARPANET Developed By ARPA in 1968.
Designed To service nuclear Attack. Before ARPANET only Telephone Networks were there. Before ARPANET the network works on circuit switching principle. It was vulnerable because failure in one switch will fail whole Conversion. ARPANET use concept of PACKET SWITCHING ,contains subnets and Hosts. Host will send Message to subnet and subnet will divide the message in packets and Forward it. Each Packet was stored Before it was forwarded.

4 The ARPANET (a) Structure of the telephone system.
(b) Baran’s proposed distributed switching system.

5 The ARPANET (2) The original ARPANET design.
IMP : interface Message Processor By :Jigar Pandya

6 The Internet Not A specific network but collection of networks.
Not planned and controlled by anyone. Possible Because of TCP/IP Model.

7 Internet Services Traditional applications (1970 – 1990) News Remote login File transfer

8 Internet

9 Internet address To identify each computer on the net it requires a proper addressing scheme. For identification each system will have Name ( Domain Name) Address ( IP Address)

10 IP Address Each computer on the internet is identify by unique IP Address. It is made of four number each of 256 bits. Each will have value from 1 to 255 Example : The numbers between . Are called OCTETS Leftmost octet represent Largest Network. Right most octet represent a particular machine.

11 Questions What is ARPANET ? Two main parts in ARPANET ? Task of host ?
Task of subnet ? Which are two types of switching ? What is circuit switching ? What is packet switching ? Define Internet Services ? IP address is Of how many bits ? Name for the numbers in IP address ? Range of OCTET ? Left Most Octet Represent ? Right Most Octet Represent ?

12 Domain Name Addressing
A small Network Having many computers is called Domain. It may also represent the behaviour of the Network or the location of the network. Domain Name Description .com Company or Commercial .edu Educational .gov Government .mil Military site .net Internet service provide or network resource Domain Name Description .au Australia .in India .uk United kingdom .ca canada

13 Wireless LAN Uses wireless transmission media.
Less popular because of high price , low data rate. The typical Coverage area is 300 to 1000 feet. Must provide security. The MAC(Medium Access Control) addressing should permit dynamic and automated addition,deletion,relocation of end system.

14 Application of wireless LAN
LAN EXTENSION : WLAN saves the cost of installation of LAN cabling and eases the task of relocation and modification. Cross Building interconnect : To connect two LAN in different building , it may be wired or wireless. Ad hoc Networking : Is a peer to peer connection for temporarily purpose.

15 Wireless LANs (a) Wireless networking with a base station.
(b) Ad hoc networking.

16 Types of WLAN It Depends Upon Transmission technique Used.
Infrared(IR) LAN : Limited To Single Room Spread Spectrum LAN : Spread Spectrum Transmission. Narrow Band Microwave : Microwave Frequency . By :Jigar Pandya

17 Types of WLAN IEEE 802.11X 802.11 : 802.11a : 802.11b (wifi) :
refers to a family of specification developed by IEEE(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) : Provide 1 Mbps or 2 Mbps transmission in 2.4 GHz Band 802.11a : Provide 5 Mbps transmission in 5 GHz Band 802.11b (wifi) : Provide 11 Mbps transmission in 2.4 GHz Band 802.11g : Provide 20 Mbps transmission in 2.4 GHz Band

18 Frame Relay Frame Relay (FR) is a high-performance WAN protocol that operates at the physical and data link layers of the OSI reference model. FR originally was designed for use across Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) interfaces. Today, it is used over a variety of other network interfaces as well. FR is an example of a packet-switched technology.

19 Frame Relay Devices Devices attached to a Frame Relay WAN fall into the following two general categories: Data terminal equipment (DTE) DTEs generally are considered to be terminating equipment for a specific network and typically are located on the premises of a customer. Example of DTE devices are terminals, personal computers, routers, and bridges. Data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) DCEs are carrier-owned internetworking devices. The purpose of DCE equipment is to provide clocking and switching services in a network, which are the devices that actually transmit data through the WAN.

20 Frame Relay Devices

21 Packet-Switching Networks
Basic technology the same as in the 1970s One of the few effective technologies for long distance data communications Advantages: Flexibility, resource sharing, robust, responsive Disadvantages: Time delays in distributed networks Need for routing and congestion control

22 Definition of Packet Switching
Refers to protocols in which messages are divided into packets before they are sent. Each packet is then transmitted individually and can even follow different routes to its destination. Once all the packets forming a message arrive at the destination, they are recompiled into the original message. Most modern Wide Area Network (WAN) protocols, including TCP/IP, X.25, and Frame Relay, are based on packet-switching technologies.

23 Circuit Switching In contrast, normal telephone service is based on a circuit- switching technology, in which a dedicated line is allocated for transmission between two parties. Circuit-switching is ideal when data must be transmitted quickly and must arrive in the same order in which it's sent. This is the case with most real-time data, such as live audio and video. Packet switching is more efficient and robust for data that can withstand some delays in transmission, such as messages and Web pages.

24 The Use of Packets NDSL, Chang Gung University

25 Packet Switching: Datagram Approach

26 Advantages with compared to Circuit-Switching
Greater line efficiency (many packets can go over shared link) Non-blocking under heavy traffic (but increased delays). When traffic becomes heavy on a circuit- switching network, some calls are blocked. Priorities can be used.

27 Disadvantages relative to Circuit-Switching
Packets Add additional delay with every node they pass through Jitter: variation in packet delay Data overhead in every packet for routing information, etc Processing overhead for every packet at every node traversed

28 Simple Switching Network
NDSL, Chang Gung University

29 Switching Technique Large messages broken up into smaller packets
Datagram Each packet sent independently of the others No call setup More reliable (can route around failed nodes or congestion) Virtual circuit Fixed route established before any packets sent No need for routing decision for each packet at each node

30 Packet Switching: Virtual-Circuit Approach
NDSL, Chang Gung University

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