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Almost every galaxy hosts a BH 99% are silent 1% are active 0.1% have jets Extragalactic jets: a new perspective G. Ghisellini in coll. with F. Tavecchio.

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Presentation on theme: "Almost every galaxy hosts a BH 99% are silent 1% are active 0.1% have jets Extragalactic jets: a new perspective G. Ghisellini in coll. with F. Tavecchio."— Presentation transcript:

1 Almost every galaxy hosts a BH 99% are silent 1% are active 0.1% have jets Extragalactic jets: a new perspective G. Ghisellini in coll. with F. Tavecchio INAF-OABrera

2 FRI-FRII & Blazars

3 Synchro Inverse Compton (also possible hadronic models) Radio IR Opt UV X MeV GeV Blazars: Spectral Energy Distribution

4 Fossati et al. 1998; Donato et al The “blazar sequence” FSRQs BL Lacs LBL and HBL

5 Fossati et al. 1998; Donato et al  peak B 2

6 By modeling, we find physical parameters in the comoving frame.  peak is the energy of electrons emitting at the peak of the SED EGRET blazars TeV BL Lacs

7 Low power slow cooling large  peak Big power fast cooling small  peak

8 Power of jets in blazars …and X-ray cavities, Allen+, 2006, Balmaverde+, 2008

9 Power of jets in blazars Tavecchio Celotti, GG 2001

10 Power of jets in blazars

11  P r = radiation P e = relat. electrons P p = protons P B = B-field R The power of blazar jets R diss ~10 17 cm

12 Ghisellini, Foschini, Tavecchio, Pian 2007 AGILE! 3C Swift

13 If one p per e- Relat. electrons Magnetic Field Radiation Celotti & Ghisellini 2007 High power P o w e r f u l j e t s a r e n o t m a g n e t i c a l l y d o m i n a t e d Celotti GG 2008

14 Celotti GG 2008, Maraschi et al P jet 10x 100x

15 Disk accretion rate (Eddington units) L disk P jet L disk P jet Jet power vs disk Lum. e-p decoupling Photon trapping BL Lacs, FSRQ,  QSO GRBs

16 Pause Jet power is large. More than L diskJet power is large. More than L disk Matter dominated. Not many pairsMatter dominated. Not many pairs P B is smallP B is small Powerful jets must be radiatively inefficientPowerful jets must be radiatively inefficient Powerful jets do not deceleratePowerful jets do not decelerate

17 A new blazar sequence Old one: based on 1 parameter: the observed luminosity Now: info on mass and accretion rate (spin? not yet) Info on jet power vs disk luminosity Info on location of dissipation: must be at some distance from BH. One zone is dominant (internal shocks?)

18 The key ideas R diss proportional to M BH R BLR proportional to (L disk )  U BLR =cost For L disk /L Edd < L c  no BLR (BL Lacs) 1/2

19 Ledlow & Owen Ghisellini & Celotti 2001

20 The key ideas R diss proportional to M BH R BLR proportional to (L disk )  U BLR =cost For L disk /L Edd < L c  no BLR (BL Lacs) P B =  B P jet  B propto R -1 P e =  e P jet 1/2

21 P B =  B P jet  B propto R -1 P e =  e P jet Celotti & Ghisellini 2008

22 The key ideas R diss proportional to M BH R BLR proportional to (L disk )  U BLR =cost For L disk /L Edd < L c  no BLR (BL Lacs) P B =  B P jet  B propto R -1 P e =  e P jet   peak propto U -1 ; U -1/2 1/2

23 The key ideas R diss proportional to M BH R BLR proportional to (L disk ) For L disk /L Edd < L c  no BLR (BL Lacs) P B =  B P jet P e =  e P jet   peak propto U -1 ; U -1/2 The key ansatz P jet always proportional to M 1/2

24 M2 M2 M2 M2 M ADAF (Narayan et al.) P jet propto L disk 1/2

25 Simple consequences R diss propto M; R BLR propto (L disk ) 1/2R diss propto M; R BLR propto (L disk ) 1/2 BLR Low M, High L disk  Red quasar High M, Low L disk  Blue quasar

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27 Simple consequences Small M, small P jet, large B, redSmall M, small P jet, large B, red BLR U BLR ~ the same Large U B

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29 Synchrotron peak frequency

30 Inverse Compton peak frequency

31 Compton dominance

32 Give me M BH and L disk (or L BLR ) and I will tell you the SED of the jet and its power Reproducing the “old” sequence

33 Conclusions P jet > L diskP jet > L disk Jets are matter dominatedJets are matter dominated Link between M, M and observed SEDLink between M, M and observed SED “Blue” FSRQs may exist“Blue” FSRQs may exist “Red” low power FSRQs may exist“Red” low power FSRQs may exist Implications about evolutionImplications about evolution GLAST + Swift + M + L disk (or L BLR )GLAST + Swift + M + L disk (or L BLR )

34 Fossati et al. 1998; Donato et al AGILE GLAST CT Swift


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