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Almost every galaxy hosts a BH 99% are silent 1% are active 0.1% have jets Extragalactic jets: a new perspective G. Ghisellini in coll. with F. Tavecchio.

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Presentation on theme: "Almost every galaxy hosts a BH 99% are silent 1% are active 0.1% have jets Extragalactic jets: a new perspective G. Ghisellini in coll. with F. Tavecchio."— Presentation transcript:

1 Almost every galaxy hosts a BH 99% are silent 1% are active 0.1% have jets Extragalactic jets: a new perspective G. Ghisellini in coll. with F. Tavecchio INAF-OABrera

2 FRI-FRII & Blazars

3 Synchro Inverse Compton (also possible hadronic models) Radio IR Opt UV X MeV GeV Blazars: Spectral Energy Distribution

4 Fossati et al. 1998; Donato et al The blazar sequence FSRQs BL Lacs LBL and HBL

5 Fossati et al. 1998; Donato et al peak B peak B2

6 By modeling, we find physical parameters in the comoving frame. peak is the energy of electrons emitting at the peak of the SED peak is the energy of electrons emitting at the peak of the SED EGRET blazars TeV BL Lacs

7 Low power slow cooling large peak Big power fast cooling small peak

8 Power of jets in blazars

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11 L r = radiation L e = relat. electrons L p = protons L B = B-field R The power of blazar jets R diss ~10 17 cm

12 Ghisellini, Foschini, Tavecchio, Pian 2007 AGILE! 3C Swift

13 If one p per e- Relat. electrons Magnetic Field Radiation Celotti & Ghisellini 2007 High power P o w e r f u l j e t s a r e n o t m a g n e t i c a l l y d o m i n a t e d Celotti GG 2008

14 Celotti GG 2008, Maraschi et al. 2008

15 Disk accretion rate (Eddington units) L disk P jet L disk P jet Jet power vs disk Lum. e-p decoupling Photon trapping BL Lacs, FSRQ, QSO GRBs

16 Pause Jet power is large. More than L diskJet power is large. More than L disk Matter dominated. Not many pairsMatter dominated. Not many pairs L B is smallL B is small Powerful jets must be radiatively inefficientPowerful jets must be radiatively inefficient Powerful jets do not deceleratePowerful jets do not decelerate

17 A new blazar sequence Old one: based on 1 parameter: the observed luminosity Now: info on mass and accretion rate (spin? not yet) Info on jet power vs disk luminosity Info on location of dissipation: must be at some distance from BH. One zone is dominant (internal shocks?)

18 The key ideas R diss proportional to M BH R BLR proportional to (L disk ) U BLR =cost For L disk /L Edd < L c no BLR (BL Lacs) 1/2

19 Ledlow & Owen Ghisellini & Celotti 2001

20 The key ideas R diss proportional to M BH R BLR proportional to (L disk ) U BLR =cost For L disk /L Edd < L c no BLR (BL Lacs) L B = B P jet B propto R -1 L e = e P jet 1/2

21 L B = B P jet B propto R -1 L e = e P jet Celotti & Ghisellini 2008

22 The key ideas R diss proportional to M BH R BLR proportional to (L disk ) U BLR =cost For L disk /L Edd < L c no BLR (BL Lacs) L B = B P jet B propto R -1 L e = e P jet peak propto U -1 ; U -1/2 1/2

23 The key ideas R diss proportional to M BH R BLR proportional to (L disk ) For L disk /L Edd < L c no BLR (BL Lacs) L B = B P jet L e = e P jet peak propto U -1 ; U -1/2 The key ansatz P jet always proportional to M 1/2

24 M2 M2 M2 M2 M ADAF (Narayan et al.) L jet propto L disk 1/2

25 Simple consequences R diss propto M; R BLR propto (L disk ) 1/2R diss propto M; R BLR propto (L disk ) 1/2 BLR Low M, High L Red quasar High M, Low L Blue quasar

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27 Simple consequences Small M, small L jet, large B, redSmall M, small L jet, large B, red BLR U BLR ~ the same Large U B

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32 Give me M BH and L disk (or L BLR ) and I will tell you the SED of the jet and its power

33 Conclusions P jet > L diskP jet > L disk Jets are matter dominatedJets are matter dominated Link between M, M and observed SEDLink between M, M and observed SED Blue FSRQs may existBlue FSRQs may exist Red low power FSRQs may existRed low power FSRQs may exist Implications about evolutionImplications about evolution GLAST + Swift + M + L disk (or L BLR )GLAST + Swift + M + L disk (or L BLR )

34 Fossati et al. 1998; Donato et al AGILE GLAST CT Swift

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36 Fossati et al. 1998; Donato et al AGILE GLAST CT Swift

37 If one p per e- Relat. electrons Magnetic Field Radiation Celotti & Ghisellini 2007 Low power

38 TeV BL Lacs

39 Subluminal motion for all TeV sources? Mkn 421 app ~ 0.03 – 0.1 (+-0.06) app ~ 0.03 – 0.1 (+-0.06) H app ~ 2.09 (+-0.53) app ~ 2.09 (+-0.53) Mkn 501 app ~ 0.05 – 0.54 (+-0.15) app ~ 0.05 – 0.54 (+-0.15) app ~ 0 app ~ app ~ 0.93 (+-0.31) app ~ 0.93 (+-0.31) app ~ 0 – 1.15 (+-0.5) app ~ 0 – 1.15 (+-0.5) Piner, Pant & Edwards 2008

40 Cospatial fast spine & slow layer R l ~10 16 cm R l ~10 16 cm R s ~10 14 cm R s ~10 14 cm cm

41 More seed photons for both = layer spine (1- layer spine ) The spine sees an enhanced U rad coming from the layer Also the layer sees an enhanced U rad coming from the spine The IC emission is enhanced wrt to the standard SSC model

42 BL Lac Radiogalaxy

43 Ghisellini Tavecchio Chiaberge 2005 Tavecchio Ghisellini 2008 spine layer

44 Power of jets

45 Coordinated variability at different Coordinated variability at different Mkn 421 TeV PDS MECS LECS

46 R BLR~ cm =10-20 ~10 17 cm Dissipation here? NO! Dissipation here? Yes! Leptonic models: Maraschi Ghisellini Celotti 1992 Dermer Schlickeiser 1993 Sikora Begelman Rees 1994 Blandford Levinson 1995 Ghisellini Madau 1996 But see e.g.: Mannheim 1993; Aharonian 2002; Rachen 2000 for proton models

47 Importance of -rays If - important too many X- rays x, >1 (>10) R blob large enough (>10 16 cm), but t var cm), but t var <1day R blob <2.5x10 15 t var cm Blob away from accretion disk X-ray corona (>10 17 cm) Energy transport in inner jet must be dissipationless

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49 Ravasio et al. 2000

50 Fossati et al. 1998

51 Gamma-ray blazars GLAST HESS+ MAGIC EGRET: ~60 blazars Cherenkov: 21 blazars (+1 Radiogal) The Universe becomes opaque at z~0.1 at 1TeV at z~2 at 20 GeV

52 The VHE extragalactic gamma-ray sky 20 BL Lacertae ( + 2 LBL)) 20 BL Lacertae (18 HBL + 2 LBL)) 1 radiogalaxy (M87, 16 Mpc) 1 FSRQs (3C279, z=0.536) NameRedshift Mkn Mkn ES Mkn ES PKS BL Lacertae PKS RGB ON231 (W Comae) PKS H ES ES H ES ES ES ES PG

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56 Extragalactic jets: a new perspective oThe blazar sequence oPower and content of jets oA new perspective G. Ghisellini in collaboration with F. Tavecchio INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera

57 t cool 1/( peak U) = R/c peak U = const peak U = const 2


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