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Blazars & GRBs Gabriele Ghisellini INAF-Osservatorio di Brera The fastest macroscopic objects of the Universe.

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Presentation on theme: "Blazars & GRBs Gabriele Ghisellini INAF-Osservatorio di Brera The fastest macroscopic objects of the Universe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Blazars & GRBs Gabriele Ghisellini INAF-Osservatorio di Brera The fastest macroscopic objects of the Universe

2

3 Lister ~10  > 10 Fermi FSRQs 

4 Earlier on: isotropic explosion

5    Later: energy crisis + collapsar scenario

6       jet Blazars: collimation 1/  GRBs: collimation GRBs: collimation  jet

7       jet Blazars: collimation 1/  GRBs: collimation GRBs: collimation  jet

8       jet L ~ L’  4 L ~ L’ (  jet ) 2 Blazars GRBs

9 0 Molinari+ 2007

10 0

11 0  E k,iso n t peak 3 1/8 t peak

12 Ghirlanda Liang+ 2012

13 Blazars: the general picture

14 Torus ~1-10 pc Broad Line Region ~0.2 pc Within R BLR U BLR = const Within R Torus U IR = const  R BLR R Torus disk Big blazars L>0.01L Edd

15 BLR <<0.2 pc weak cooling SSC only “ADAF disk”  L<0.01L Edd BL Lacs

16   R diss FSRQs: emission lines  many seed photons BL Lacs: no or weak lines

17 FSRQs BL Lacs  FSRQs  R diss FSRQs BL Lacs

18   FSRQs FSRQsFSRQs

19 Blazars and GRBs: same efficiency

20 Collimation corrected Nemmen+ Science 2012 blazars GRBs

21 Fermi blazars, one p per e- GRBs

22 Jet launching Internal pressure or magnetic field? or magnetic field?

23      n o R Jet opacity: blazars n o from M out     ~ P jet 1 P jet  1 L Edd Jet opacity: GRBs aT 0 4 kT 0 ~ n +     ~ P jet,51 M1M1M1M /23/4

24 Jet launching In GRBs we have 2 possibilities: - internal pressure: the huge optical depth traps photons inside - magnetic field In blazars: - internal pressure: the optical depth is small - magnetic field

25 Jet launching In GRBs we have 2 possibilities: - internal pressure: the huge optical depth traps photons inside - magnetic field In blazars: - internal pressure: the optical depth is small - magnetic field Magnetic field: - Produced and amplified by the disk - Link with accretion

26 Blandford & Znajek  U B ~  c R s This explains why P j ~ L d B ~ G in GRBs B ~ 10 4 G in blazars B ~ 10 9 G in galactic superluminals

27 synchro EC Small B torusdisk X-ray corona

28 Fermi FSRQs Power in cold protons (1 per emitting e-) Power in rel. electrons Power in Poynting flux Power in radiation (model indipendent) Disk luminosity

29 M out /M in for blazars and for GRBs P jet =  M out c 2 L d =  M in c 2 for blazars:

30 M out /M in for blazars and for GRBs P jet =  M out c 2 L d =  M in c 2 for blazars:  P jet LdLdLdLd M out M in = ~ blazars

31 M out /M in for blazars and for GRBs P jet =  M out c 2 L d =  M in c 2 for blazars: for GRBs: M in ~ 0.1 M O t burst  P jet LdLdLdLd M out M in = M out M in =  c M O EkEkEkEk ~ 5.5x10 -4 2222 E k52 ~ blazars

32 Blazars and GRBs: a difference

33 Blazars: the redder the more powerful  cooling GRBs: the bluer the more powerful  heating??  ? “Amati” “Ghirlanda” E peak [keV] E [erg]

34 Conclusions Jets are the most efficient engine of Nature Compare jet power and L disk as a function of the accretion rate. Normalize to Eddington.

35 ? Late prompt in GRBs?

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37 blazars GBRs

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40 Fossati et al. 1998; Donato et al The “blazar sequence” FSRQs BL Lacs BATIntegral

41 FSRQs Line strength Fossati et al. 1998; Donato et al. 2001

42 FSRQs BL Lacs M/M Edd Fossati et al. 1998; Donato et al Next talk by Meyer

43 Sbarrato SDSS+1LAC Do we really need to divide blazars? 5x10 -4 EW<5A EW>5A Narayan & Yi 1995: L BLR /L Edd ~ Sharma+ 2007: L BLR /L Edd ~ M-  Plotkin+ 2011

44 Black hole masses (for FSRQs)

45 UVOT XRT Fermi GG, Tavecchio & Ghirlanda 2009 Low energy synchro peak: leave the disk naked! torus disk X-ray corona synchro SSC EC  M BH =2x10 9

46 BAT M BH =10 10

47 The jet cannot have less power than what required to produce the observed luminosity: P jet L obs 2222 > If P jet is twice as much,  halves. We can take that as the minimum P jet. This limit is model-independent.

48   

49 1 proton per electron  no pairs Having pairs would reduce P jet. But where are they created?

50

51 Pause P jet ~ Mc 2, even larger than L dP jet ~ Mc 2, even larger than L d For all M/M EddFor all M/M Edd BL Lacs  ADAF FSRQs  SSBL Lacs  ADAF FSRQs  SS L BLR /L Edd divides BL Lacs from FSRQsL BLR /L Edd divides BL Lacs from FSRQs Matter, not magnetic, dominatedMatter, not magnetic, dominated

52  P r = radiation ~ L obs /  2 P e = relat. electrons P p = protons P B = B-field R jet power and accretion luminosity ~10 17 cm Shakura-Sunjaev disk: L d P jet = P e +P p +P B

53 What is a blazar? A jetted AGN, whose jet is relativistic (  ~10) and is “pointing at us”. A jetted AGN, whose jet is relativistic (  ~10) and is “pointing at us”. To be more quantitative: To be more quantitative:  view   For each blazar, 2  2 radio-loud AGN pointing elsewhere: FR I and FRII radio- galaxies

54 3 months, 10  BL Lacs Flat Steep FSRQs LLLL Fossati et al. 1998; Donato et al. 2001

55 M/ M Edd GG, Maraschi, Tavecchio years– 4  Ackermann+ 2011

56 Molinari+ 2007

57 Isotropic Collimation corrected


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