Presentation on theme: "The Accretion Mode - Morphology Link in Radio-Loud AGN jets: Towards a More Complete Unification Scheme Eileen Meyer Rice University University of Maryland,"— Presentation transcript:
The Accretion Mode - Morphology Link in Radio-Loud AGN jets: Towards a More Complete Unification Scheme Eileen Meyer Rice University University of Maryland, Baltimore County (Space Telescope Science Institute) 26 June 2012 Black Holes by the Black Sea Istanbul, Turkey
2/26 Introduction 2/28 “From the Blazar Sequence to the Blazar Envelope: Revisiting the Relativistic Jet Dichotomy” ApJ (2011) 740:98 “Radio Loud AGN Unification: Jet Power, Orientation, and Accretion Mode” (in preparation, Georganopoulos et al.) Markos Georganopoulos, UMBC Giovanni Fossati, Rice University Matt Lister, Purdue University
3/26 Introduction 3/28 SMBH 10 6 -10 10 M sol Accretion Disk → Luminosities up to ~ 10 46 erg/, peak in UV Molecular Torus → size up to ~pc Broad Line Region (BLR): 10-100 ld l Narrow Line Region (NLR): scales > MT (seen at all angles) l Relativistic Jet, Γ = 2-40 Up to ~Mpc θ Major Questions - How are Jets formed and launched from the SMBH? - What creates the RQ/RL divide? - Role of Accretion Mode and/or Spin? Radio Loud AGN - Jets in radio galaxies vs. blazar view - Morphology/Structure of the Jet? - Site of the gamma-ray emission? → Georganopoulos talk this afternoon - Is there an accretion mode dichotomy? → what can we learn from studying large populations?
4/26 Introduction 4/28 Radio Galaxy Blazars Zeroth Order: Orientation-based Unification: FR I: brightest at the center, “plumey jets” FR II: brightest in the lobes, collimated jets Direct view of the jet!
5/26 Introduction 5/28 Radio Loud AGN Unification (beyond orientation) FR I FR II Radio Galaxy Morphology Blazar Spectral Type Low power, weak lines) High power, high excitation spectra FSRQ BL Lac (Many notable exceptions!) ADAF Thin disk
7/26 Introduction 7/28 The Blazar View of the Relativistic Jet Synchrotron emission Inverse Compton (source of upscattered photons not well understood) Isotropic Radio Emission from Slowed Plasma in the Lobes Peak frequency, wide range
8/26 Introduction 8/28 The Blazar Sequence + Jet Power Increases - ν peak decreases + L peak /L R Increases + IC dominance increases + BLLs to FSRQ spectral change
9/26 Introduction 9/28 Sources here were found (Nieppola 2006, Landt 2006, Caccianiga 2004) BL Lacs: Jet Power uncorrelated with ν p How does continuous sequence match morphology/accretion divide?
Part I: The Blazar Envelope 10/28 Relativistic Beaming θ Θ increasing Relativistic Doppler Boosting of Apparent Luminosity is dependent on θ, Γ. 4:1
Part I: The Blazar Envelope 11/28 Hypothesis: The Blazar Sequence Envelope Jet Power Increases (blue → red) Along 0° path (gray): L p increases ν p decreases Departing from the sequence, sources drop in Luminosity and frequency as θ increases Need to measure: Orientation (θ) Intrinsic Jet Power (good L p, ν p ) Hypothesis: The Blazar Sequence
Part I: The Blazar Envelope 12/28 Part I: Revisiting the Blazar Sequence Is there a monoparametric Sequence? (1) Measure (unbeamed) Jet Power (2) Measure the alignment – how does angle of observations affect what we see? – Hint: Jet structure may become more apparent at large θ (3) Build Up a large Sample – better SED sampling
Part I: The Blazar Envelope 13/28 Methods Lobe Emission “sticks up” Core is faint in the radio (not beamed) II. Orientation: Radio Core Dominance Cavity Power (P*ΔV/time) Extended, Low-frequency Power Cavagnolo, et al. 2010
Part I: The Blazar Envelope 14/28 Results BLLs Radio Galaxies FSRQ & BLLs
Part I: The Blazar Envelope 15/28 Results “Simple jet” (single Γ) “Decelerating Flow” model (Georganopoulos et al 2005) Two Branches?
Part I: The Blazar Envelope 16/28 New Hypothesis: A Strong/Weak Dichotomy? Strong Jets: – All High L kin (> 10 44.5 erg s -1 ), some lower L kin – (Nearly) All FSRQ, many BL Lacs – Low ν p (< 10 15 Hz), Reach highest L p – Associated with FR IIs (based on L kin ) Weak Jets: – Only at low L kin (< 10 44.5 erg s -1 ) – (Nearly) All BL Lacs – All high ν p (> 1 01 5 Hz), some low ν p ? – Associated with FR Is (based on L kin ) S W
Part I: The Blazar Envelope 17/28 New Hypothesis: A Strong/Weak Dichotomy? Next Questions: 1) Is the divide real? 2) Linked to Accretion Mode? Spectral Type mixed? 3) Jet Power? (not clean divide) 4) Sequence 'broken'?
Part I: The Blazar Envelope 18/28 Some Questions Answered Low ν p, low L p sources? → These appear to be misaligned. L kin (L ext ) does not vary with ν p for BL Lacs? → Consistent with our findings: Horizontal movement due to velocity gradients in jet Sources at low ν p have range of L kin ? → Consistent with our findings: All 'misalignment paths' meet at low ν p
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 19/28 Part II: Accretion Mode and the Broken Power Sequence Accretion Modes – driving the FR I/FR II divide? Critical value m'~10 -2.5 Ghisellini et al. 2001 Jet Power BH mass
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 20/28 (Mass estimates from reverberation mapping, velocity dispersions, mass-luminosity scalings) L kin, θ, ° … m? Weak Jets = Inefficient Strong Jets = Efficient
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 21/28 The Broken Power Sequence Inefficient Efficient
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 22/28 The Broken Power Sequence
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 23/28 The Broken Power Sequence
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 24/28 The Meaning of Spectral Type: BL Lacs on the strong branch?
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 25/28 The Meaning of Spectral Type: BL Lacs on the strong branch? 1:4 Δ frequency :Δ Luminosity δ/δ 0 = ν peak / ν 0
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 26/28 Summary: The Broken Power Sequence log L kin =43 m'= 1x10 -4 log L kin =44.5 m'= 1x10 -2.5 Let's follow 10 9 m sol SMBH at 0° (log L edd ~ 47) log L kin =45 m'= 1x10 -2 log L kin =46 m'= 1x10 -1
Conclusions/Key Observations + Suggestion of Two populations: “weak” / “strong” + Jet Power important, but not fundamental: Accretion Mode Difference? + Spectral types (FSRQ, BLL) are affected by beaming, not reliable! + Observations consistent with a change in accretion mode at a critical rate of ~ 10 -2 Eddington rate, linked to a divide in jet SED characteristics. + The sequence may exist in 'broken' form:
Next Steps - Complete a detailed study of high-energy emission seen by Fermi - Expand the sample to include narrow-line Seyfert galaxies - Look at VLBI data: jet speeds, morphologies - Expand the sample - Radio Galaxies need to be studied more
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 30/28 Part III: The High-Energy Properties of RL AGN
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 31/28 Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) versus External Compton (EC) SSC – upscatter synchrotron photons -IC peak is a “copy” of synchrotron -beaming pattern is the same: L ~ δ 3+α synchrotron peak or IC peak EC – upscatter photons from outside the jet (BLR, molecular torus, accretion disk?) -beaming pattern is different: L ~ δ 3+α synchrotron peak L ~ δ 4+2α IC peak (For radio, L core /L ext ~ L ~ δ 3+α, α ~ 0.2 )
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 32/28 EC in powerful jets? Trend of increasing Compton Dominance (Rp) with Rce – only for most powerful sources! Many “strong jets” down here – SSC?
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 33/28 Apparent Jet Speed
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 34/28 Apparent speed is maximum in the middle of the correlation, as expected.
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 35/28 EC in powerful jets? Trend of increasing Compton Dominance (Rp) with Rce – only for most powerful sources! Many “strong jets” down here – why?
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 36/28 EC versus SSC Very High Power jets → EC Moderately High Power jets –> ? SSC? Only Very High Power FSRQ show this collective behavior: A possible clue to the Gamma-ray emission site? BLR versus Molecular Torus: IF SSC dominates in moderate FSRQ, synchrotron energy density must be greater than external photon energy density - while the reverse holds in powerful FSRQ. This can be cast as a critical value of Lorentz Factor : MT: critical value ~ 16 BLR: critical value ~ 8
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 37/28 If the plasma emitting in different zones (e.g., radio versus gamma-ray) have different speeds ( Γ ), and thus different δ and the relationships will not be linear! The larger the difference, the more curvature
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 38/28 What can we learn from Fermi ? Rce, Lkin can predict Lg 1.1,1.5,1.4,1.3,1.5
Part II: Accretion and the Broken Sequence 39/28 Beaming Patterns: Expectations Synchrotron: generally, L = L 0 δ p + α (p=3 or 2) → L R = L R,0 δ 3 + α' while L p = L p,0 δ 4 (ssc) -or- L p = L p,0 δ 6 (EC) [assume δ are the same...] X not seen?
Part I: The Blazar Envelope 40/28 Orientation (Rce) Expectation: As core dominance increases, ν p will increase No single track?
41/26 Introduction 41/28 Low Luminosity High Luminosity (ADAFs?) (thin-disk?) RL: FR I & BL Lacs FR II & FSRQ RQ: Seyferts quasars AGN XRBs ? low hard state high soft state
Part I: The Blazar Envelope 42/28 Orientation (Rce) Clear break between RG, blazars “striping” - indicates that Lkin and L0 are linked