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Helminthes (worms).

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Presentation on theme: "Helminthes (worms)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Helminthes (worms)

2 Helminthes sub kingdom metazoa Phylum Nemathelminthes (round worms)
(intestinal round worm) Nematodae class (tissue round worm) Filariea (flat-worms) Platyhelminthes Phylum (tape worm) Cestodea (Flukes) Trematodea

3 Nematodes (round worm)

4 General characteristics
-bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented and elongated, -The body is covered with a non cellular cuticle. -The sex is separated ( bisexual the )female is longer than the male. -Size varies from less than one mm to several centimeters. -Digestive system is complete with mouth, gut & anus. -Nervous system is very simple. -Reproductive system is well developed. The fundamental stages in are the egg , larva & the adult..

5 Enterobius vermicularis
Threadworm, Pinworm, Seatworm, or Oxyuris vermicularis. (entero = intestine, bius = live) , (oxy = sharp, uris = tail).

6 Epidemiology -It is cosmopolitan.
-It is more common in cold, temperate than in tropical and subtropical climates. (decrease bathing and less change of the (underwear, so more chance to infection.

7 Morphology



10 Mode of transmission 1-Anus to mouth by:
a-contaminated finger: (reinfection). b-contaminated night clothes, bed linen, etc. 2-Airborne. 3-Retroinfection. 4-People sleeping in the same bed or bedroom, also contaminated toilet seat and wears.

11 Pathology and clinical manifestations
Majority of infections are asymptomatic. -Pruritis ani is main clinical manifestation, which results from: 1-tickiling sensation from the emergence of the adult female worm. 2-biproduct of adult worms. 3-sticky albumin material coated the eggs. -Perianal excoriation, abdominal pain, appendicitis and eosinophilia are other manifestations.

12 Behavioral changes -nail biting, -nose picking,
-grinding of teeth during night, -inattention and poor cooperation nervousness, night mare, insomnia, anorexia, loss of weight, tiredness and dark shadow under the eye.

13 Ectopic enteropiasis -Ectopic migration of worms may cause -vaginitis,
-omentiti, -cervisitis, -peritonitis and -recurrent UTI.

14 Diagnosis 1-History and clinical finding:
2-Specific diagnosis by detection of: -Adult worms in a-stool (on the surface). b-peri-anal area -Eggs: by a-Scotch tape slide method: 95% of infected cases. b-Stool examination: 5% of infected cases

15 Treatment -Mebendazole (vermox) repeated after 7-10 days. -All family must be treated. -All bed lines & towels washed in hot water & the home must be cleaned.

16 Trichuris trichiura (Whipworm)
-It occurs worldwide. -most common in warm moist climates and areas where sanitation is poor.

17 Trichiuris trichiura: adult worms (female and male)

18 Egg of Trichiuris trichiura


20 Pathogenesis and clinical features
-Abdominal pain, weight loss, or epigastric pain. -Rectal prolapsed (probably due to toxic irritation of nerve endings). -Anaemia due to heavy worm load. -Malnutrition. -Bloody diarrhea. -Acute appendicitis due to mechanical blockage. -Eosinophilia

21 Diagnosis 1-Stool examination a-typical barrel shaped eggs.
b-occasionally an adult worm may appear in stool. 2-Sigmoidoscopy In heavy infection, sigmoidoscopy may show the white bodies of the worm hanging from the inflamed mucosa- the so called coconut cake rectum.

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