Presentation on theme: "Helminthes (worms). Helminthes sub kingdom metazoa Phylum Nemathelminthes (round worms) class Nematodae (intestinal round worm) class Filariea (tissue."— Presentation transcript:
Helminthes sub kingdom metazoa Phylum Nemathelminthes (round worms) class Nematodae (intestinal round worm) class Filariea (tissue round worm) Phylum Platyhelminthes (flat-worms) class Cestodea (tape worm) class Trematodea (Flukes)
Nematodes (round worm)
General characteristics -bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented and elongated, -The body is covered with a non cellular cuticle. -The sex is separated ( bisexual the )female is longer than the male. -Size varies from less than one mm to several centimeters. -Digestive system is complete with mouth, gut & anus. -Nervous system is very simple. -Reproductive system is well developed. The fundamental stages in are the egg, larva & the adult..
Epidemiology -It is cosmopolitan. -It is more common in cold, temperate than in tropical and subtropical climates. (decrease bathing and less change of the (underwear, so more chance to infection.
Mode of transmission 1-Anus to mouth by: a-contaminated finger: (reinfection). b-contaminated night clothes, bed linen, etc. 2-Airborne. 3-Retroinfection. 4-People sleeping in the same bed or bedroom, also contaminated toilet seat and wears.
Pathology and clinical manifestations Majority of infections are asymptomatic. -Pruritis ani is main clinical manifestation, which results from: 1-tickiling sensation from the emergence of the adult female worm. 2-biproduct of adult worms. 3-sticky albumin material coated the eggs. -Perianal excoriation, abdominal pain, appendicitis and eosinophilia are other manifestations.
Behavioral changes -nail biting, -nose picking, -grinding of teeth during night, -inattention and poor cooperation nervousness, night mare, insomnia, anorexia, loss of weight, tiredness and dark shadow under the eye.
Ectopic enteropiasis -Ectopic migration of worms may cause -vaginitis, -omentiti, -cervisitis, -peritonitis and -recurrent UTI.
Diagnosis 1-History and clinical finding: 2-Specific diagnosis by detection of: -Adult worms in a-stool (on the surface). b-peri-anal area -Eggs: by a-Scotch tape slide method: 95% of infected cases. b-Stool examination: 5% of infected cases
Treatment -Mebendazole (vermox) repeated after 7-10 days. -All family must be treated. -All bed lines & towels washed in hot water & the home must be cleaned.
Trichuris trichiura (Whipworm) -It occurs worldwide. -most common in warm moist climates and areas where sanitation is poor.
Trichiuris trichiura: adult worms (female and male)
Egg of Trichiuris trichiura
Pathogenesis and clinical features -Abdominal pain, weight loss, or epigastric pain. -Rectal prolapsed (probably due to toxic irritation of nerve endings). -Anaemia due to heavy worm load. -Malnutrition. -Bloody diarrhea. -Acute appendicitis due to mechanical blockage. -Eosinophilia
Diagnosis 1-Stool examination a-typical barrel shaped eggs. b-occasionally an adult worm may appear in stool. 2-Sigmoidoscopy In heavy infection, sigmoidoscopy may show the white bodies of the worm hanging from the inflamed mucosa- the so called coconut cake rectum.