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Telicity features of bare nominals Henriëtte de Swart Paris, Oct 2010.

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1 Telicity features of bare nominals Henriëtte de Swart Paris, Oct 2010

2 Bare plurals and telicity Mary ate an/the apple in/*for an hour. [telic] Mary ate apples for/*in an hour. [atelic] Mary ate the apples in/*for an hour. It took Mary an hour to eat an apple/*apples. He continued to eat #an apple/#the apple/apples. English bare plurals lead to atelicity (unbounded process), most other nominal arguments to telicity (event with inherent endpoint).

3 Entailment relations Mary was eating apples  Mary ate apples. (cumulativity: parts of an atelic situation are of the same nature as the whole). Mary was eating an apple/the apple/the apples -/-> Mary ate an apple/the apple/the apples (parts of a telic situation are not of the same nature as whole). Mary ate the apple, #but she didn’t finish it. (culminated telic event requires completed object) Mary ate apples, but she didn’t finish them.

4 Iterative durativity/bare habituality John found #a flea/fleas on his dog for a week. John repairs #a bicycle/bicycles. Every day, John repairs a bicycle/bicycles. Sg indefinite does not allow multiple event reading, even if one object is involved per event; no bare habituality. Sg indef OK under quantifier scope.

5 Aspectual composition Semantics of nominal argument determines aspectual nature of VP (S). Verkuyl (1972/1993): [±SQA] feature on NPs Krifka (1989): quantized/non-quantized objects. Mapping objects events/path structure. Quantized object maps onto quantized event/ bounded path (Mary ate an apple) Cumulative object maps onto cumulative event/ unbounded path (Mary ate apples)

6 Quantized and cumulative reference QUA(P) = def  a  b [P(a)  P(b)  (a  b)] (extension does not extend to proper parts). CUM(P) = def  a  b [P(a)  P(b)  a  b   a  b [P(a)  P(b)  P(a  b)]] (extension contains at least two objects, and is closed under sum formation) Definitions apply to events and objects ~ mapping relation (Krifka 1989).

7 Iterative durativity With count noun interpretations, cumulative reference requires plurality (Scha 1984). Van Geenhoven (2004, 2005): pluractionality explains combination of accomplishment/ achievement with for-adverbial: bare plural distributes internal argument over events.

8 Bare habituality Fereira (2005): HAB operator is plural definite. De Swart (2006) on bare habituality: bare plural behaves like dependent plural on set of events. Unicycles have wheels. John repairs bicycles. E event  X ind is a bijection; one-one relation requires cumulativity.

9 Inherent telicity The dog ate up a/the cake that I baked for the party. The dog ate up the cakes/ *cakes I baked for the party. He drank up (all) the water/*water in the tap. Particle verb inherently telic: mapping from object to event requires object to be quantized  incompatible with bare plural/mass noun.

10 Role of thematic relation Thematic relation between dynamic verb and object: mapping requires incremental theme. He pushed the rock/rocks for/*in an hour. He pushed the rock up the hill for/in an hour. (object does not measure out event: spatial path requires optional directional argument). He loved his cat/cats for/*in many years. (stative verb does not induce event structure).

11 Cross-linguistic support (Spanish) Escribió dos artículos en/*durante tres meses. He wrote two articles in/*for three months. Escribió artículos *en/durante tres meses. He wrote articles *in /for three months. El zorro siguió matando gallinas/*varias gallinas The fox continued killing chickens/several chickens. Dobrovie-Sorin & Laca (2003), Dobrovie-Sorin & Beyssade (2004).

12 Cross-linguistic support (Italian) Ha stirato molte camicie in due ore / *per due ore di seguito. He ironed many shirts in two hours/*for two hours. Ha stirato camicie *in due ore / per due ore di seguito. He ironed shirts *in two hours/for two hours. Dobrovie-Sorin & Laca (2003).

13 Broadening our view Do bare plurals in all languages lead to atelicity? If so, why? If not, why not? What about bare singular (count) nominals (in languages in which they occur)? Predictions about telicity? If we want to investigate the telicity features of bare nominals, where do we start?

14 Bare nominal semantics BN: nominal without a determiner ~ no info about quantity, discourse reference. Intuition: bare nominals convey (covertly) what is not expressed (overtly) by determiners (cf. Chierchia 1998, blocking). What features of the language come into play in determining the aspectual nature of configurations with bare nominals?

15 A typology of bare nominals Cross-linguistic variation in the semantics of bare nominals correlates with variation in number marking and article use. Number: sg/pl distinction leads to BS/BPl distinction ~ investigate number neutrality. Article use: definite/indefinite article blocks definite interpretation/discourse reference. De Swart & Zwarts (2009, 2010): OT typology.

16 OT typology of number/articles *FunctN: Avoid functional structure in the nominal domain (markedness constraint). FPl: Parse sum reference in the functional projection of the nominal (faithfulness constr.) FDef: Parse dynamic uniqueness by means of a functional layer above NP. Fdr: Parse a discourse referent by means of a functional layer above NP.

17 No sg/pl, no articles: Mand. Chinese *FunctN >> {faith constraints number, articles} Wò kànjiàn xióng le. [Mandarin Chinese] I see bear Asp ‘I saw a bear/bears.’ Gou juezhong le. Dog extinct Asp. ‘Dogs are extinct.’ Gou hen jiling. Dog very smart. ‘The dog/dogs are intelligent.’

18 Induced telicity in Mandarin Wo he-guan le tang. I drink-up asp soup ‘I drank up the soup/*soup.’ Wo mai-zhao le shu. I buy-get asp book I managed to buy the books/*books.’ Sybesma (1999): RV construction requires definite/specific interpretation of bare nominal.

19 Telicity features of Mandarin BN BN n :  quantized (‘indef’, ‘specific’, ‘definite’),  cumulative (‘unbounded plurality’) No blocking of form/meaning combination: telic/atelic interpretation for number neutral BN.

20 Sg/pl distinction, no article: Slavic FPl >> *FunctN >> {faithfulness constraints definiteness/discourse reference} On ot-kryl perf okno. [Russian] he open.past.perf window.acc ‘He opened (the/a) window.’ Petja čital imp stat’i/literaturu Peter articles/literature-acc ‘Peter was reading articles/the articles/ literature/the literature/read articles/literature.’

21 BS in Slavic semantically singular BS s in Slavic languages have atomic reference: complement of BPl under bidirectional optimization (Farkas & de Swart 2010). atsum BS    BPl 

22 Bare habituality with BPl Cumulativity of count noun depends on plurality (Scha 1984) ~ no cumulative interpretation for BS s. Petja čitaet lekcii v universitete [Russian] Peter read-IMP-pres lectures in university ‘Peter gives lectures (is a lecturer) at the university Petja zavtra čitaet lekciju v universitete Peter tomorrow read-IMP-pres.3sg lecture in university ‘Tomorrow, Peter is giving (will give) a lecture at the university’ Borik (2002: 140).

23 BPl definite/indefinite in Slavic Petja pro-čital stat’i/literaturu Peter articles/literature-acc ‘Peter read the articles/the literature’ No definite article, no competition: BPl underspecified ~ adapts under contextual pressure to define inherent endpoint by taking up definite/specific interpretation: Filip (1999), Piñón (2001), Gehrke (2008),..

24 Perfectivity induces telicity Piñón (2001): Perfective prefix requires quantized (not cumulative) object. Czytać i : Imp(Read) = y x e [Read(e,x,y)] Prze-czytać p : Perf(Imp(Read)) = P Q e[ Q (e, x e’[ P (e’, x e” [Read(e”,s,y)])])   x[  CUM( Q ( x e’[Read(e’,x,y)]))]   y[  CUM( P ( x e’[Read(e’,x,y)]))]]  P  Q [  CUM(Perf-Imp-Read( P )( Q ))]

25 Slavic BS/BPl and telicity BS s :  quantized (‘indef’, ‘specific’, ‘definite’)  cumulative BPl:  quantized (‘specific’, ‘definite’)  cumulative (‘unbounded plural’)

26 Sg/pl distinction, no article: Hindi FPl 0 *FunctN >> {faithfulness constraints definiteness/ discourse reference} anu botal/botaleN ika TThaa kartii hai Anu bottle/bottles collects [Hindi] ‘Anu collects bottles.’ Dayal (2009) aNgaN me kutta bhaunk rahaa hai yard in dog bark prog pres ‘The dog/a dog is barking in the yard.’ BS n (number neutral) underspecified for definite

27 Telicity features of BS in Hindi Anu-ne tiin ghanTe meN/tak kitaab paRhii Anu-erg three hours in/ for book read ‘Anu book-read in three hours’ = exactly one book ‘Anu book-read for three hours’ = one/more books. Anu puure din cuuhaa pakaRtii rahii Anu whole day mouse kept-catching ‘Anu kept catching (different) mice the whole day.’ Telic/atelic interpretation for both BS n and BPl. Acc case ~ quantized interpretation, Dayal (2009).

28 Telicity features of BS/BPl in Hindi BS n :  quantized (‘indef’, ‘specific’, ‘definite’)  cumulative (‘unbounded plurality’) BPl:  quantized (‘specific’, ‘definite’)  cumulative (‘unbounded plurality’) Overlapping constraints lead to ‘weak’ contrast between BS n and BPl: no restriction to atomic reference for BS n. BS n tolerates cumulative reference ~ allows for iterative durativity.

29 Definite article (Hebrew) {FPl, Fdef} >> *FunctN >> Fdr ra’iti kelev. hu navax/ #hem navxu I-saw dog. It barked/ #they barked ‘I saw a dog. It barked/ #they barked.’ novxim klavin. Bark dogs ‘Dogs are barking.’ Doron (2003). Strong contrast sg/pl ~ BS has atomic reference: BS s. Fully discourse referential. Restricted to indefinite interpretation under bidirectional optimization.

30 BS in Hebrew semantically indefinite Blocking by DefSg restricts BS s in Hebrew to indefinite interpretation. Idem for BPl (non-definite only)  BS    DefSg 

31 Telicity features of Hebrew BS/BPl hu kara sefer be-ša’a/ be-mešex ša’a he read book in-hour/ for hour ‘He read a book in an hour/for an hour.’ (weak telicity features, no cumulative reading) hu nipeax balonim bemešex šaa he blew balloons for an hour hu nipeax et ha-balonim tox 5 dakot. he blew acc the balloons in 5 minutes Cabredo Hoffher (2009), Yitzhaki (2003)

32 No iterative durativity for Hebrew BS Lack of plurality blocks iterative durativity/bare habituality of Hebrew BS s John me’ašen sigariya John smokes cigarette  John is smoking a cigarette (episodic)  John smokes cigarettes (habitual) Cabredo Hoffher (2009)

33 Telicity features of Hebrew BS/BPl BS s :  quantized (‘indefinite’)  cumulative BPl:  quantized (‘specific’, ‘definite’)  cumulative (‘unbounded plural’)

34 Definite and indefinite article: Brazilian Portuguese, Papiamentu, Norwegian Fdef >> {FPl, Fdr} 0 *FunctN Tem criança na sala. There is child in the room. E ela está/elas estão ouvindo [Braz. Port] And she is/ they are listening. Munn & Schmitt (1999). Strong contrast bare/definite: BS/BPl indefinite. Weak contrast BS/BPl ~ number neutrality: BS n Weak contrast BS/SgIndef: both disc. ref.

35 Telicity features of BS/Sl Ele leu *novella/ uma novella em uma hora He read *novel/ a novel in an hour. Eu matei iguana/*un iguana por duas horas. I killed iguana/*an iguana for two hours ‘I killed iguanas for two hours.’ [BrPort] Mi a mata yuana/#un yuana pa dos ora largu I past killed iguana/#an iguana for two hour long ‘I killed iguanas/#an iguana for two hours.’ [Pap]

36 Telicity features of BS/SI Number neutrality licenses cumulativity ~ bare habituality. João fuma cigarro João smokes cigarette ‘João smokes cigarettes.’ Munn & Schmitt (1999), Schmitt & Kester (2007): strong aspectual constrast BS (atelic)/ SgIndef (telic) in Braz. Port, Papiamentu. Why?

37 Telicity features of BS/BPl BS n :  quantized (‘indefinite’)  cumulative BPl:  quantized (‘specific’, ‘definite’)  cumulative (‘unbounded plural’)

38 Def/indef article (Romance, Hungarian) {Fpl, Fdef, Fdr} >> *FunctN Morphological sg/pl contrast, def/indef sg, and bare/indef plural (depending on discourse role plural morphology, cf. Farkas & de Swart 2003). Strong contrast BS  everything else: BS does not satisfy Fdr ~ restricted to constructions with ‘weak’ discourse referentiality features: object position of ‘have’ verbs, bare predication, bare coordination, bare PPS..

39 Number neutrality of BS Busco pis. Un a Barcelona i un a Girona. [Catalan] look.for-1sg appartment. One in B. and one in G. ‘I’m looking for an apartment. One in Barcelona and one in Girona.’ Espinal & Mcnally (2010) Mari belyeget gujt. [Hungarian] Mari stamp-acc collect ‘Mari collects stamps.’ BS in Romance/Hungarian number neutral: BS n. Farkas & de Swart (2003): number defined for discourse referents, not for thematic arguments (DRT). Weak referentiality ~ number neutrality.

40 Bare singulars with ‘have’ verbs Spanish, Catalan, Romanian: fairly liberal use of bare singulars in object position of ‘have’ verbs, cf. Dobrovie-Sorin, Bleam & Espinal (2006), Espinal & McNally (2010). Lleva sombrero. [Sp] / Porta barret. [Catalan] wears hat wears hat ‘(S)he wears a hat.’ Ion are casă [Romanian] Ion has house. ‘Ion has a house.’ But: mostly stative verbs  no telicity effects.

41 Dynamic verbs: telicity? Ha buscat pis #en una setmana /durant una setmana. has looked.for flat in a week /during a week ‘(S)he has looked for a flat for a week.’ [Catalan] Ha buscat pisos #en una setmana /durant una setmana. has looked.for flats in a week / during a week ‘(S)he has looked for flats for a week.’ Ha buscat un pis en una setmana / durant has looked.for a flat in one week / during a week ‘(S)he has looked for and found a flat in a week.’ / (S)he has looked for a flat for a week.’ Espinal & McNally (2010): bare sg atelic ~ different from both sg indefinite and bare plural. But is this enough?

42 Accomplishment verbs: telicity Encontraron aparcamento (en diez minutos) [Sp] Found parking (in ten minutes) ‘They found a parking place in ten minutes Espinal (2009): there could be more than one parking place if more than one driver (NN). Telic interpretation of bare nominal possible, at least with certain verbs. Espinal (p.c.): BS n must be aspectually inert (property interpretation).

43 No iterative durativity in Spanish [Context: Lola left the Netherlands and moved to Spain, but felt homesick for a long time.] Lola se consiguió (un) novio holandés durante el primer año. (= one boyfriend, relationship lasted for one year). [Mex. Spanish] Lola se consiguió novios holandeses durante el primer año. (= several boyfriends throughout the period of one year). Lola found herself Dutch boyfriend/ a Dutch boyfriend/ Dutch boyfriends for the first year. Note: Not all Spanish speakers like the BS in this environment (Espinal p.c.).

44 No iterative durativity in Catalan En Joan va trobar *puça / puces en el gos det Joan past find flea/ fleas in the dog durant una setmana for a week Espinal (p.c.) ‘Joan found fleas on his dog for a week.’ *Els nuvis han comprat anell the bride and groom have bought ring els uns als altres the ones to.the others. Espinal (2010)

45 Bare habituals with BPl Limpio *coche/coches. [Spanish] clean car/cars ‘I clean/am cleaning cars.’ Mata cucarachas (non-inclusive reading) roaches ‘She kills roaches.’ Laca (1990): contrast between bare plurals and definite plurals in object position of generic statements. Espinal (2009): BS n infelicitous (not a ‘have’ verb).

46 Bare sg and telicity in Romanian Dobrovie-Sorin, Bleam and Espinal (2006): restriction to ‘have’ verbs/‘prototypical’ objects. Ion şi-a compărat casă în doi ani. Ion se dat -has bought house in two years ‘Ion has bought a house in two years.’ *Ion şi-a compărat casă timp de doi ani. Ion se dat -has bought house time of two years Telic interpretation compatible with bare sg, at least with certain verbs.

47 Romanian for-adverbials Maria si-a trantit (un) prieten olandez timp de un an. M. refl-has banged (a) boy-friend Dutch time of one year ‘Maria got herself a Dutch lover for one year’ (=one boy-friend, relationship lasted for one year) Maria si-a tras (tot) iubiti olandezi timp de un an M. refl- has (tot) lovers Dutch time of one year. ‘Maria kept getting herself Dutch lovers for one year’ (=multiple lovers over a period of one year). Gianina Iordachioaia (2010, pc)

48 Iterative durativity/bare habituals Ion vinde motociclete/*motocicleta. John sells motorcycles/*motorcycle ‘John sells motorcycles.’ Anul trecut, cand a tinut cainele in casa, Maria a Year last, when has kept dog.the in house, M. has (tot) gasit purice/purici in pat timp de cateva zile. (all-PO) found flea/fleas in bed time of few days 'Last year, when she had her dog in the house, Mary kept finding fleas in the bed for a few days' Gianina Iordachioaia (2010, p.c.)

49 Collectivity vs. iteration in H. Ma delutan szaraz levelet szedtem ossze a haz korul. This afternoon dry leaf gathered together the house around ‘This afternoon, I gathered dry leaves around the house.’ Ma delutan szaraz leveleket szedtem ossze egy-es-è-vel This afternoon dry leaves gathered together one-by-one a haz korul [Hungarian] the house around ‘This afternoon, I gathered dry leaves one by one around the house.’ Number neutrality in object position ‘collect’ verbs, but no iterative durativity. Dayal (2009).

50 No iterative durativity in H János (*egy hétig) bolhát talált a utyáján. John(*one week-till) flea.acc found the dog-3sg-on.  John found some fleas on his dog (on one occasion). [Hungarian] Not: John found fleas on his dog for a week (iterative durative reading), Bende-Farkas (2001). Number neutrality in Romance/Hungarian does not lead to atelicity via plurality (no cumulativity).

51 Telicity features of BS/BPl in Romance/Hungarian BS n :  quantized (‘indefinite’, ‘definite’)  cumulative (‘unbounded plurality’) BPl:  quantized (‘specific’, ‘definite’)  cumulative (‘unbounded plural’) Def/indef and sg/pl contrast do not apply to non-referential arguments (require dr). Cumulative BS n requires (dr) plurality for event distributivity: not available for BS n in Romance/ Hungarian.

52 Recap: role of number in telicity *FunctN >> FPl or FPl 0 *FunctN leads to number neutrality ~ BS n  cumulative  atelic, iterative durativity/bare habituality (Mandarin Chinese, Hindi, Braz. Portuguese) FPl >> *FunctN leads to atomic reference for BS s ~  cumulative  telic, no iterative durativity/bare habituality (Slavic, Hebrew).

53 Recap: role of definite article *FunctN >> Fdef makes definite/specific interpretations available for both BS and BPl ~  quantized  telic interpretations available with BS and BPl (Mandarin Chinese, Hindi, Slavic). Fdef >> *FunctN restricts BS/BPl to indefinite interpretation ~ BPl  quantized  atelic interpretation only for BPl (Hebrew, Brazilian Portuguese).

54 Recap: role of indef. article In Brazilian Portuguese, Papiamentu indefinite sg competes with BS n ~ BS n  quantized  atelic interpretation only, iterative durativity/ bare habituality OK. Why? Fdr >> *FunctN: BS restricted to non-referential position, number and definiteness irrelevant, but no asserted plurality. BS n  cumulative  quasi telic interpretation verb driven, no iterative durativity/bare habituality (Romance, Hungarian).

55 Telicity features of bare nominals across languages OT typology of number morphology and article use: competition. Form/meaning distribution under bidirectional optimization: bare nominals take complement meaning of overt marking. Number neutrality and definite/indefinite articles (or lack thereof) crucial for telicity features of bare nominals in a language.

56 Project Info Weak referentiality: bare nominals at the interface of lexicon, syntax and semantics (2008-2012). ruyn/weakreferentiality/index.htm ruyn/weakreferentiality/index.htm

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