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Mainstreaming Adaptation into National Development Plans By Dr. Bill Dougherty Dr. Balgis Osman Elasha.

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Presentation on theme: "Mainstreaming Adaptation into National Development Plans By Dr. Bill Dougherty Dr. Balgis Osman Elasha."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mainstreaming Adaptation into National Development Plans By Dr. Bill Dougherty Dr. Balgis Osman Elasha

2 Outline of talk Overview of mainstreaming –What does it mean? –Why is mainstreaming necessary? –What will it require? Perspective from Sudan –What does it mean in the context of Sudan? –Why is mainstreaming necessary in Sudan? –What will it require in terms of near-term national action?

3 What Does Adaptation Mean? Definitions Mainstreaming: used to describe the consideration of climate change adaptation in national (and regional) decision making processes (planning, budgeting etc.) –Integration: used when specific adaptation measures are added to the development plan or strategy

4 Mainstreaming from top-down: General awareness building Addressing adaptation concerns in new and existing national (and regional) development policies, plans and projects (“we should do…”) Revising existing national development policies, plans and projects to address maladaptive elements (“we should avoid doing…”) Mainstreaming from bottom-up: General awareness building Integrating adaptation components into new and existing community development projects and activities Revising existing local development projects and activities to address maladaptive elements What Does Adaptation Mean? Basic Approaches

5 What Does Adaptation Mean? Leverage Points National sustainable development strategies Poverty Reduction Strategy Biodiversity Strategy & Action Plan Combating Desertification Strategy & Action Plan Climate-related plans (NAPA, SNC) Synergies (links between the MEAs) Existing planning processes e.g. EIA Sectoral policies and plans Local and community-based natural resource management plans

6 Why is mainstreaming necessary? Findings summarized in the IPCC/TAR (2001) and supported by the report "Poverty and Climate Change" (2003) indicate that the poorest people in the world are the most vulnerable to impacts of climate change. The main objective of adaptation is to reduce the vulnerability to climate change impacts Adaptation no longer focused on predicting impacts; latest trends suggest adaptation should concentrate on strengthening adaptive capacity of social and ecological systems

7 Urgency of the problem Lack of definitive commitment to climate change adaptation in Africa Difficulty of establishing a new stand-alone strategy for adaptation (priority issues) Avoidance of negative impacts on adaptation (mal-adaptation) Why is mainstreaming necessary? (2)

8 If developing countries need to focus on increasing adaptive capacity over the long term: Ad hoc responses (short-term responses, uncoordinated processes, isolated projects, etc.) are not a solution Solution will need to involve: –mainstreaming adaptation into national development processes –integrating adaptation into all relevant strategies, policies, programs and projects Why is mainstreaming necessary? (3)

9 Mainstreaming adaptation: What does it require? Mainstreaming from top-down: General awareness building Working within key policy and planning “entry points” Working with key “enabling” figures (influential policy- makers, ministries, etc.) Mainstreaming from bottom-up: General awareness building Working within key local development “entry points” Working with key local development “enablers” (e.g., decision-makers, NGOs, vulnerable populations)

10 Mainstreaming adaptation: What does it require? (2) Mainstreaming from top-down (examples of key inputs): Effective case for mainstreaming (links, efficiencies, no-regrets) Political will of several key “enablers” Strategy for effective policy integration Dynamic leadership of mainstreaming process Institutional awareness building Mainstreaming from bottom-up (examples of key inputs): Effective case for mainstreaming (links, opportunities, no-regrets) Political will of several key local “enablers” Practical guidance for local development activities NGO and public awareness building campaign/outreach strategy

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12 Perspective from Sudan: Why is mainstreaming necessary? Sudan is highly vulnerable to climate impacts, in particular drought; through its First National Communications, Sudan has identified key climate change vulnerabilities Much of Sudan’s vulnerability stems from low adaptive capacity – a result of poor development and poverty Effective adaptation will address these root causes For a range of reasons (competing priorities, efficiency, etc.) adaptation should work through existing efforts to address root causes

13 In Sudan, examples of mainstreaming opportunities include: UNCBD: National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) UNCCD: National Action Programme National Environmental Policy and Policy Act Roll Back Malaria Plan of Action 25-Year Strategy Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Perspective from Sudan: What does mainstreaming mean?

14 Adaptation within the Poverty Reduction Strategy Process (PRSP) Adaptation within the Poverty Reduction Strategy Process (PRSP) The Poverty Reduction Strategy Process (PRSP) started in 1999. A higher council {HC} chaired by the President of the Republic was established by presidential decree in year 2000, to supervise the preparation and implementation of a comprehensive program for Poverty Reduction. Perspective from Sudan: What does mainstreaming mean? (2)

15 PRSP main objectives: Maintaining Economic Stability. Ensuring Political Stability (through Peace Process). Achieving Social Stability. Increasing Standards of living Assist in achieving Debt Relief Assist in the flow of External Funding. Perspective from Sudan: What does mainstreaming mean? (3)

16 Main PRSP Pillars Economic Stability Environmental Integrity Social Stability Political Stability Perspective from Sudan: What does mainstreaming mean? (4)

17 Hypothetical demonstration To demonstrate the possibility of mainstreaming of adaptation into the Sudan poverty reduction strategy, we are going to consider specific adaptation measures adopted by the rural communities in Western Sudan, (pilot case study) This example represents an opportunity for linking both top-down (PRSP) and bottom-up (community- based project) mainstreaming Perspective from Sudan: What does mainstreaming mean? (5)

18 Mapping adaptation against the PRSP: Political stability Environmental integrity Social stability Economic stability Pillars of the Poverty Reduction strategy -Reduced conflicts over natural resources -Land degradation (slowed or reversed); -Condition of the vegetation cover (stabilized or improved); -Soil and/or crop productivity (stabilized or increased); -Migration (slowed, stabilized, or reversed -Participation of local communities in community works and in the decision making processes (improved or decreased) -Average income levels (stabilized or increased); SL Generic indicators -Institution building -Conflict resolution -Rangeland rehabilitation -Water harvesting and management -Stabilization of sand dunes -Creation of windbreaks -Community development - Training& capacity Building -Community institutional structure created - Introduction of revolving credit -Increasing number of livelihood alternatives (income generating activities Adaptation Strategies Perspective from Sudan: What does mainstreaming mean? (6)

19 Opportunities for enhancing integration of adaptation objectives of adaptation could be translated into community resource management strategies and mainstreamed into development plans this will lead to the achievement of many economic, environmental and social benefits resulting from the sustainable management of natural resources Perspective from Sudan: What does mainstreaming require?

20 Opportunities for enhancing integration of adaptation The integration will as well assist in exploring indigenous knowledge and its importance to local livelihoods. Development of the Adaptation Policy Framework: A Guideline for Policies to Facilitate Adaptation to Climate Change can improve the knowledge, awareness and government preparedness. Perspective from Sudan: What does mainstreaming require? (2)

21 Obstacles to enhancing integration of adaptation: Win-win options which support both adaptation and development objectives tend not to be promoted in development policy and planning as sectoral strategies favour short term economic interest without accounting for longer term impacts on the natural resource base on which poor rural communities depend for their livelihood. Perspective from Sudan: What does mainstreaming require? (3)

22 Obstacles to enhancing integration of adaptation: development plans are mostly not finely-tuned to the specific needs, priorities and capacities of local communities (North Models). Local communities are rarely consulted or able to influence decision-making. Lack of attention among scientists to identify links to sectoral policies and plans and develop mechanisms for integration Perspective from Sudan: What does mainstreaming require? (4)

23 Obstacles to enhancing integration of adaptation: Not engaging all major stakeholders' especially local communities in the process of development planning at the national level. Lack of sufficient communication and awareness among different stakeholders needed to integrate adaptation in routine development activities. Tension between the different planning departments which rarely encourage cross-sectoral thinking or approaches Perspective from Sudan: What does mainstreaming require? (5)

24 Recommendations: Focus on priorities, outcomes and means of implementation to develop a strategic planning at the national level which is agreed amongst all sectors and levels; Use a combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches beginning at local level and then moving up; Establish a well defined mechanism for coordination, provide necessary guidance, capacity building and resources; Institutionalize adaptation planning within each sector and highlight potential incentives; Perspective from Sudan: What does mainstreaming require? (6)

25 Recommendations: Secure high level political commitment to support the process of integrating adaptation in the development plans; Demonstrate through the results of case studies that adaptation is central to key concerns of poverty, social marginalization, conflict and instability etc; Demonstrate the ways in which adaptation can reinforce existing specific natural resource policies and institutional frameworks (enabling environment ); Provide a framework for monitoring and measuring performance within each sector to be established Perspective from Sudan: What does mainstreaming require? (7)

26 Thanks Develop & Adapt Conserve the Environment


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