Presentation on theme: "How to develop a paragraph"— Presentation transcript:
1 How to develop a paragraph A common deductive paragraph shouldbe developed bythe inter-connected partsTOPICSENTENCEUsually written at the first sentence of every paragraphcommunicate the subject of the paragraph – general subject and specific partsSUBJECTDEVELOPMENTSpecific kinds of information: facts (information and statistics) and examplesSUMMARY SENTENCEMethods of writing the summary sentence:Repeat the main ideas of the paragraph in a new way; orGive a conclusion based on the information in the paragraph.
2 topic sentence Compare the following pairs of sentences Indonesia students go abroad for two main reasons.Indonesia students go abroad to experience other cultures and to attend abroad universitiesHealth care, annual bonuses, and vacation time are benefits that are offered by ITS for the employees.
3 Subject Development: general subject and specific parts To complete the subject development, the most specific kinds of information should be developed, the information can be in the form of facts (information and statistics) or examplesIndonesia students go abroad to experience other cultures and to attend abroad universitiesto experience other culturesby living in a country where English is spokenby staying with a new familyto attend abroad universitiesFor a better quality of learningFor learning both content and the language as well
4 Summary Sentence Method 1: Method 2: Repeat the main ideas of the paragraph in a new wayMethod 2:Give a conclusion based on the information in the paragraph
5 Example of a paragraphIndonesia students go abroad to experience other cultures and to attend abroad universities. For Indonesia students, staying abroad can become a means of experiencing other cultures. By living in a country where English is spoken, they can acquire the language as well as the indigenous cultures. In addition, they can learn new living habits while staying with a new family. Not only the cultures, studying abroad also offers a better quality of learning and gives more rooms for learning both the language and the content. It cannot be denied that all of these can hardly be found in their home country. Finally, the final goals why students want to go and stay abroad are possibly due to the eagerness to know about other people’s cultures and to enjoy more reputable universities than ones in Indonesia.
6 Develop an Essay Introductory paragraph Body Paragraphs General statementThesis StatementBody ParagraphsTopic SentenceSupporting Sentences(Concluding Sentence, only if necessary)Concluding ParagraphRestatement of the main points,orSummaryFinal comment
7 Introductory paragraph General statement – to attract your reader’s attentionThesis statementStates the main topicOften lists the subdivisions of the topic or subtopicsMay indicate the method of organisation of the entire paperIs usually the last sentence in the introductory paragraph
8 EXAMPLES OF THESIS STATEMENT TS without subtopics mentioned:Being the oldest son has more disadvantages than advantages.Young people in my culture have less freedom than young people in the United States.The large movement of people from rural to urban areas has major effects on cities.TS with the subtopics:The large movement of people from rural to urban areas has major effects on a city’s ability to provide housing, employment, and adequate sanitation servicesA colon (:) used to list two or more subtopics:Prejudice arises from three basic causes: childhood conditioning, ignorance, and fear.
9 EXAMPLES OF INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH Any person who has lived in the twentieth century has seen a lot of changes take place in almost all areas of human existence. Some people are excited by the challenges that these changes offer; others want to return to the simpler life-style of the past. The twentieth century has certain advantages such as a polluted environment, the depersonalization of human relationships, and the weakening of spiritual values.
10 CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH Consists of Example: A summary of the main points, or a restatement of the TS in different wordsYour final comment on the subject.Example:In short, although the twentieth century has indeed given some of us a lot of advantages by making us richer, healthier, and freer to enjoy our lives, it has, in my opinion, not made us wiser. The 20th century has also made our earth dirtier, our people less humane, and our spiritual lives poorer. We wish to continue to enjoy the benefits of technological advancement because they free us to pursue our other interests and goals. However, we must make a concerted effort to preserve our natural environment for future generations. Moreover, we should take the time now to make our lives more meaningful in our increasingly impersonal, mechanized world.
11 Paragraf pengantarTechnology pays an important part in daily lives. While many technological developments may be beneficial-in the field of medicine, for instance – there are many others whose effects are less positive. Examples of these in the world of work can easily be found in the home and in the whole area of freedom and privacy.Paragraf Isi 1:Less positive effectsIn the world of work, technological advances have had various negative effects. The development of robotics has meant that in industries, such as car-manufacturing, robots are replacing people. They work faster and more accurately and they don’t need breaks. As a result, industrial workers see job opportunities decreasing further and unemployment levels rising. In addition, more and more people are working from home using personal computers, which mean that they lose the stimulus that comes from working in direct contact with other people and may feel isolated.ParagrafIsi 2:Possitive effectsFinally, there are implications of information technology for freedom and privacy. More facts about individuals are being stored in data banks, which may be accessed through networks of computers. This creates an ever-increasing risk of accidental or deliberate leaking of private details. Every day more information is collected by banks, credit card companies, consumer organizations and so on. It is certainly convenient to store information in this way, but it could lead to long-term problems. There may be other hidden dangers-theoretically, could a ‘thinking’ computer start to use data against us?Paragraf penutupTo sum up, people today must be very careful with technology. While it has clear advantages, there is also the danger that it could turn on them and they could find themselves the victims of their success.
12 analysis of the essayTS: Many technological developments may be beneficial-in the field of medicine, for instance – there are many others whose effects are less positive.the topic is technological developments that is generaland may be beneficial …less positive effects that are more specificSP: technological advances have had various negative effects (less positive effects)SP: there are implications of information technology for freedom and privacy (seen from the negative effects)CP: While it has clear advantages, there is also the danger (restatement of the thesis statement)
13 Introductory paragraph Technology brings problems as well as to humankind. Since Henry Ford began mass-producing them in 1908, automobiles have provided us with a cheap and convenient means of transportation. However, they also brought us traffic jams and air pollution. A technological development that is changing our lives as much as the automobiles is the personal computer. Since the 1980s, personal computers have become common in homes, schools, and businesses, and just as automobiles have brought unexpected problems, so have personal computers.(this introductory paragraph begins with universal truth and then it is specified into something more specific, namely, personal computers. This topic then is followed with sub topic, unexpected problems, though, it is better if the unexpected problems need to be specified)
14 Body paragraphsTo begin with, communication by computer has caused some problems. Although we can easily send a message to hundreds of people in an instant way, we can also receive hundreds of message, both wanted and unwanted, in just a few minutes. It took several hours to read all of them. The lack of censorship in cyberspace is another problem that no one has solved yet. Our expanded ability to communicate means that anyone with a computer can communicate anything to anyone on any subject at any time. Therefore, a computer-literate child can receive pornographic photos and listen to chat-room conversations about sex.
15 Cont’d body paragraphIn addition to problems in communication, computers have also caused problems in business. They have created excellent opportunities for computerized crime. Computer criminals use their skills to obtain secret business information and to steal money. Moreover, the use of computers has depersonalized business. People are no longer customers: they are account numbers. Face-to-face business transactions are no longer necessary, as any sort of transactions can be done through computer, phone, or fax. Also, as telecommunicating becomes more common, workers in the same company interact with each other less and less. Someday it may be possible to have a company of people who have never met face-to-face.
16 Concluding paragraphIt is clear that personal computers have made our lives easier, but they have done so at a cost. As with every new invention, there have unforeseen consequences. It is up to us to find the solutions to the problems as well as to enjoy the conveniences of the new tool.
17 Analysis of selected essay : Outline Introductory paragraphpersonal computers have brought unexpected problemsIn communicationIn businessBody paragraphsunexpected problems in communicationNot only wanted, but also unwanted message delivered through communication by computerLack of censorshipMore open access to any sort of informationunexpected problems in businessto obtain secret business information and to steal moneyno more face-to-face business transactionsLess and less interaction amongst workers at the same companyConcluding paragraphIt is clear that personal computers have made our lives easier, but they have done so at a cost
18 Develop the following topics into thesis statements The effects of internet to young usersCertifying the quality of education practitionersScientific endeavors taken by ITS to reach internationally recognized institutionCharacteristics of Good TeachersEffective strategies for learning in higher educationExchange your TS with your peers, as soon as you get some comments, make some revisions and develop into an essay