Presentation on theme: "How to develop a paragraph A common deductive paragraph should be developed by the inter- connected parts TOPIC SENTENCE Usually written at the first."— Presentation transcript:
How to develop a paragraph A common deductive paragraph should be developed by the inter- connected parts TOPIC SENTENCE Usually written at the first sentence of every paragraph communicate the subject of the paragraph – general subject and specific parts SUBJECT DEVELOP MENT Specific kinds of information: facts (information and statistics) and examples SUMMARY SENTENCE Methods of writing the summary sentence: 1.Repeat the main ideas of the paragraph in a new way; or 2.Give a conclusion based on the information in the paragraph.
topic sentence Compare the following pairs of sentences 1. Indonesia students go abroad for two main reasons. 2. Indonesia students go abroad to experience other cultures and to attend abroad universities 3.Health care, annual bonuses, and vacation time are benefits that are offered by ITS for the employees.
Subject Development: general subject and specific parts To complete the subject development, the most specific kinds of information should be developed, the information can be in the form of facts (information and statistics) or examples Indonesia students go abroad to experience other cultures and to attend abroad universities 1.to experience other cultures –by living in a country where English is spoken –by staying with a new family 2.to attend abroad universities –For a better quality of learning –For learning both content and the language as well
Summary Sentence Method 1: –Repeat the main ideas of the paragraph in a new way Method 2: –Give a conclusion based on the information in the paragraph
Example of a paragraph Indonesia students go abroad to experience other cultures and to attend abroad universities. For Indonesia students, staying abroad can become a means of experiencing other cultures. By living in a country where English is spoken, they can acquire the language as well as the indigenous cultures. In addition, they can learn new living habits while staying with a new family. Not only the cultures, studying abroad also offers a better quality of learning and gives more rooms for learning both the language and the content. It cannot be denied that all of these can hardly be found in their home country. Finally, the final goals why students want to go and stay abroad are possibly due to the eagerness to know about other peoples cultures and to enjoy more reputable universities than ones in Indonesia.
Develop an Essay Introductory paragraph –General statement –Thesis Statement Body Paragraphs –Topic Sentence –Supporting Sentences –(Concluding Sentence, only if necessary) Concluding Paragraph –Restatement of the main points,or –Summary –Final comment
Introductory paragraph General statement – to attract your readers attention Thesis statement –States the main topic –Often lists the subdivisions of the topic or subtopics –May indicate the method of organisation of the entire paper –Is usually the last sentence in the introductory paragraph
EXAMPLES OF THESIS STATEMENT TS without subtopics mentioned: –Being the oldest son has more disadvantages than advantages. –Young people in my culture have less freedom than young people in the United States. –The large movement of people from rural to urban areas has major effects on cities. TS with the subtopics: –The large movement of people from rural to urban areas has major effects on a citys ability to provide housing, employment, and adequate sanitation services A colon (:) used to list two or more subtopics: –Prejudice arises from three basic causes: childhood conditioning, ignorance, and fear.
EXAMPLES OF INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH Any person who has lived in the twentieth century has seen a lot of changes take place in almost all areas of human existence. Some people are excited by the challenges that these changes offer; others want to return to the simpler life- style of the past. The twentieth century has certain advantages such as a polluted environment, the depersonalization of human relationships, and the weakening of spiritual values.
CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH Consists of –A summary of the main points, or a restatement of the TS in different words –Your final comment on the subject. Example: In short, although the twentieth century has indeed given some of us a lot of advantages by making us richer, healthier, and freer to enjoy our lives, it has, in my opinion, not made us wiser. The 20 th century has also made our earth dirtier, our people less humane, and our spiritual lives poorer. We wish to continue to enjoy the benefits of technological advancement because they free us to pursue our other interests and goals. However, we must make a concerted effort to preserve our natural environment for future generations. Moreover, we should take the time now to make our lives more meaningful in our increasingly impersonal, mechanized world.
Paragraf pengantar Technology pays an important part in daily lives. While many technological developments may be beneficial-in the field of medicine, for instance – there are many others whose effects are less positive. Examples of these in the world of work can easily be found in the home and in the whole area of freedom and privacy. Paragraf Isi 1: Less positive effects In the world of work, technological advances have had various negative effects. The development of robotics has meant that in industries, such as car-manufacturing, robots are replacing people. They work faster and more accurately and they dont need breaks. As a result, industrial workers see job opportunities decreasing further and unemployment levels rising. In addition, more and more people are working from home using personal computers, which mean that they lose the stimulus that comes from working in direct contact with other people and may feel isolated. Paragraf Isi 2: Possitive effects Finally, there are implications of information technology for freedom and privacy. More facts about individuals are being stored in data banks, which may be accessed through networks of computers. This creates an ever-increasing risk of accidental or deliberate leaking of private details. Every day more information is collected by banks, credit card companies, consumer organizations and so on. It is certainly convenient to store information in this way, but it could lead to long-term problems. There may be other hidden dangers-theoretically, could a thinking computer start to use data against us? Paragraf penutup To sum up, people today must be very careful with technology. While it has clear advantages, there is also the danger that it could turn on them and they could find themselves the victims of their success.
analysis of the essay TS: M any technological developments may be beneficial-in the field of medicine, for instance – there are many others whose effects are less positive. the topic is technological developments that is general and may be beneficial …less positive effects that are more specific SP: technological advances have had various negative effects (less positive effects) SP: there are implications of information technology for freedom and privacy (seen from the negative effects) CP: While it has clear advantages, there is also the danger (restatement of the thesis statement)
Introductory paragraph Technology brings problems as well as to humankind. Since Henry Ford began mass-producing them in 1908, automobiles have provided us with a cheap and convenient means of transportation. However, they also brought us traffic jams and air pollution. A technological development that is changing our lives as much as the automobiles is the personal computer. Since the 1980s, personal computers have become common in homes, schools, and businesses, and just as automobiles have brought unexpected problems, so have personal computers. (this introductory paragraph begins with universal truth and then it is specified into something more specific, namely, personal computers. This topic then is followed with sub topic, unexpected problems, though, it is better if the unexpected problems need to be specified)
Body paragraphs To begin with, communication by computer has caused some problems. Although we can easily send a message to hundreds of people in an instant way, we can also receive hundreds of message, both wanted and unwanted, in just a few minutes. It took several hours to read all of them. The lack of censorship in cyberspace is another problem that no one has solved yet. Our expanded ability to communicate means that anyone with a computer can communicate anything to anyone on any subject at any time. Therefore, a computer-literate child can receive pornographic photos and listen to chat-room conversations about sex.
Contd body paragraph In addition to problems in communication, computers have also caused problems in business. They have created excellent opportunities for computerized crime. Computer criminals use their skills to obtain secret business information and to steal money. Moreover, the use of computers has depersonalized business. People are no longer customers: they are account numbers. Face-to-face business transactions are no longer necessary, as any sort of transactions can be done through computer, phone, or fax. Also, as telecommunicating becomes more common, workers in the same company interact with each other less and less. Someday it may be possible to have a company of people who have never met face-to-face.
Concluding paragraph It is clear that personal computers have made our lives easier, but they have done so at a cost. As with every new invention, there have unforeseen consequences. It is up to us to find the solutions to the problems as well as to enjoy the conveniences of the new tool.
Analysis of selected essay : Outline Introductory paragraph personal computers have brought unexpected problems In communication In business Body paragraphs unexpected problems in communication Not only wanted, but also unwanted message delivered through communication by computer Lack of censorship More open access to any sort of information unexpected problems in business to obtain secret business information and to steal money no more face-to-face business transactions Less and less interaction amongst workers at the same company Concluding paragraph It is clear that personal computers have made our lives easier, but they have done so at a cost
Develop the following topics into thesis statements The effects of internet to young users Certifying the quality of education practitioners Scientific endeavors taken by ITS to reach internationally recognized institution Characteristics of Good Teachers Effective strategies for learning in higher education Exchange your TS with your peers, as soon as you get some comments, make some revisions and develop into an essay