Presentation on theme: "CREED GREER UNIVERSITY WRITING PROGRAM DIAL CENTER FOR WRITTEN AND ORAL COMMUNICATION Writing in the Social Sciences Building Strong Paragraphs: Writing."— Presentation transcript:
CREED GREER UNIVERSITY WRITING PROGRAM DIAL CENTER FOR WRITTEN AND ORAL COMMUNICATION Writing in the Social Sciences Building Strong Paragraphs: Writing With Coherence
Paragraphs and Coherence Logic Visual Layout: Artificial units of print that you create on the page to make units of meaning accessible (external logic) Logical Structure: Cohesive units that you construct to advance a persuasive argument (internal logic)
Paragraphs and Coherence Paragraph Length Dependent on the issue and the document length. Parcel the information into manageable units, breaking long paragraphs at logical points. Paragraph often for easy access to information and visual appeal.
Paragraphs and Coherence Focus and Development Revise to make each paragraph unified and focused on a single issue. Within sections, paragraphs should build logically on one another to develop your ideas smoothly.
Paragraphs and Coherence Organization You should almost always place the main issue or topic at the beginning of the paragraph as scaffolding. After this initial definition of the main issue, provide the discussion and supporting details. End the paragraph with a resolution. (A transition to the next paragraph can be helpful, though the transition usually occurs at the beginning of the subsequent paragraph.)
Paragraphs and Coherence Coherence Connect sentences using Transitional words and phrases Repetition of key words Pronouns or reference words (this, these, such)
Paragraphs and Coherence Transitional Words and Phrases We will not meet our target date for implementing the new system because the two departments have failed to coordinate with one another. Also, our vendors failed to ship equipment on time. However, we can be operational by March 15 if we take the following three steps immediately.
Paragraphs and Coherence Transitional Words and Phrases I don’t wish to deny that the flattened, minuscule head of the large- bodied "stegosaurus" houses little brain from our subjective, top-heavy perspective, BUT I do wish to assert that we should not expect more of the beast. FIRST OF ALL, large animals have relatively smaller brains than related, small animals. The correlation of brain size with body size among kindred animals (all reptiles, all mammals, FOR EXAMPLE) is remarkably regular. AS we move from small to large animals, from mice to elephants or small lizards to Komodo dragons, brain size increases, BUT not so fast as body size. IN OTHER WORDS, bodies grow faster than brains, AND large animals have low ratios of brain weight to body weight. IN FACT, brains grow only about two-thirds as fast as bodies. SINCE we have no reason to believe that large animals are consistently stupider than their smaller relatives, we must conclude that large animals require relatively less brain to do as well as smaller animals. IF we do not recognize this relationship, we are likely to underestimate the mental power of very large animals, dinosaurs in particular. Stephen Jay Gould, “Were Dinosaurs Dumb?”
Paragraphs and Coherence Repetition of Key Words Quality problems in production are often the result of inferior raw materials. Some companies have strong programs for ensuring the quality of incoming production materials and supplies. These programs.
Paragraphs and Coherence Use of pronouns or reference words (this, these, such) SocioWweb has a three-point program to assist scholars. This program includes written specifications of research methods and materials. As production increased, employees were given a bonus in the form of cash, vacation days, or company stock. This became a real incentive to employees. (unclear referent) Workshops can help employees recognize and avoid sexual harassment at work. This can foster a more harmonious work environment. (vague referent)
Paragraphs and Coherence Essay Coherence: Connections Between Paragraphs Create logical connections between sentences and paragraphs to guide your reader through your thinking and show relationships. Transitional words, sentences, and paragraphs flag a progression or shift in thought. Transitional sentences usually summarize what has gone before the paragraph and anticipate what is to come. e.g..: Although the proposal has several clear disadvantages, it also has the following significant advantages.
Paragraphs and Coherence Essay Coherence: Connections Between Paragraphs Use signposts/cues to establish the logical relationships: Cues signaling additional information Cues signaling chronological development Cues signaling contrast or difference Cues that add details or emphasis Cues that sum up or conclude
Paragraphs and Coherence Essay Coherence: Signposts Conclusion Therefore Thus In conclusion Consequently On the whole As a result Hence In brief Additional Info And Further Moreover Again Next What’s more Also In addition Equally important Details/ Emphasis In fact For example For instance To illustrate Indeed In other words In short Obviously That is Chronology Soon Afterwards Finally Then Previously Formerly Next Immediately Contrast However But Although Nonetheless In contrast Meanwhile Yet On the other hand Conversely